Hamidiye stakera

Ugalay ke Armenafa saneaytara

Hamidiye stakeraarmenavon Համիդյան ջարդեր is turkavon Hamidiye Katliamı ), dere yoltkirafa gu Armenafa stakera ke 1894-1896 [1] ik Armenafa Saneaytara [1], tid stakera va armenik koe Osmanlı gindaxo dilizeyesa isti 1890-e sanda. Uldinet da xonukikafa ota tiyir vas 80 000 ik 300 000 [2] isen gadiskikafa ota vas 50 000. [3] Stakera va yolt ke Abdülhamit II gindik dikid, i ke gindik lasunubegayas va atitsuso gindaxo num abduaskiyis va kotislameva wetce sokafa rietoda. [4] Beka stakera kev armenafa sanelia dalon zo graskayad, pune dere vanpiyid wiiskafa stakera kev kristevafa sanelia, dum tulon stakera ke Diyarbakır lize sedme milugalafa givaklita, icle 25 000 assurik dere zo aytayad. [5]

Stakera koe idja ke Osmanlı gindaxo bak 1894 tozuweyed aze remi toloya direfa tanda jadiaweyed. To wali 1894 is 1896 pisonara loote sokiyid. Bak 1897 nope walvedeyafa lanzara va Abdülhamit kastaweyed. Lofigafa sabegara kev armenikeem zo skuyur, i kev doda jontikedje brazayana, isen kabera ta wideytafa fabdura is lokiewafa askipera gan bowere zo afanayad. Osmanlı rictaga va klaa ok ikra ke kosik vol nyurnayar numen sanelia fikapoon zo stakeyer [6] ugale sumesutesiki va warzot den varafa tamava rotamuzeyer isen stakera gan yona kanaca ke taltefa Europa is lentefa Amerika zo sokuvapayad.

Orka

Xanta ke plabuca tove armenikeem tir nope loloon xokagafa tirka ke Osmanlı gindaxo remi ironokafu amu ke XIX-eafa decemda. Tena ke turkafa felira va Balkan gola nope europaf vedeyevaf fird is karakera va mivgotura ke yono tawavo jontikviele dagino gan Osmanlı roti tozuwer. Armenikeem ke gindaxo, jontikviele torigiyin gu toleasegaf wideyik, va wideytafa fabdura is lokiewafa askipera ke bowere isti 1860-e sanda is titi 1870-e toz eruyud. Va tena ke stibera va taway eruyud, is « va tena ke elakera is pisonara koe armenafa widava gan kurdik is tcerkesik, is va tena ke mevexaca ke dotara va koayka, is va tena ke gomilafa linulara ke flibik ke bowere is vewara va kristevik wetce jizaf vrutanik ».[7] Bata erura gan idjafe bowere me zo nyurnayad. Viele vanblisa vedeyevinda dene armenikeem ke Anatola toz galbuweyer, don erura va rokafa miltuca is vanlaumara ke mivvexuca, Osmanlı gadesik malyedayad da islamevafa adala ke gindaxo is dace inafa kruldera zo dratceyed.

Armenaf uum

Pendara va rossiafa sayakafa kiewatca koe noeltafa rossiaturkafa geja is ligundewerapa ke Osmanlı gindaxo koe konak ind ( tulon tel erbaf mali 1873, is dere icde tawavo ) is pokolera ke yon armenik va bowera va konviele varafa Armena gan Rossia, va warzafa kera ke armenik blis koe Osmanlı gindaxo jupayad. Armenik va dastrubeniktum gaden gan Mkrtich Khrimian den Berlin Aba bak 1878 stakseyed enide va europaf gijarotiaceem ta ozeracka va inafa sanelia koe kasafa dilifa walkalura xuvar.

Wori gindik va roti me djuprokoebgayar. Abdülhamit trakuyur da xaka ke Osmanlı gindaxo vas « alokafa brazara ke kristevafa tamava » daneyer.[8] Torigiyir da armenik tiyid dakira ke divefa plabuca, i mergil mu Europa ta « kalfira va idja ke gindaxo is soltioltera va piodeem ».[9] Osman Nuri turkaf izvopik va blirizva ke Abdülhamit katcalar da « beta miwara va " fabdura " ravlem va in zuneyer ise va gomilafa wayeda plataeyer ».[10] Givanon gu worara ke armenaf dastrubenik ko Berlin bak 1878, piron katcalayar : « Mana okridacapa... mana relmerapa va alka is soka... gan Lorik zo rotapsad !!» [11] Kore dosteyer da lana sinafa temera tiyid rigakirafa, « va armenik gu segena boresikya jidjasa va metisa kranavera » doluneyer, kalison : « Sin tid to ayikyakorafe is nyukafe sane va int palsese kake blucte ke gijarotiaceem is murumase icde beta lazava ». [12]

Hamidiye vertega

Iksantuks ke 61-e teliz ke Berlin bioga ( 1878 ) icde fabdura va armenaf winkeem tere me zo rewayad voxe va lana rujara dace jupayad. Kota ronefa winka ke gindaxo kotvielu tiyir musansafa. [13] Kurdaf tcumivik va irubasik ke wida is widava volpursanon dilfuyud. [14] Bak 1890-1891 ugale gindaxo tiyir axarsafo is grigrustayano is djuprowalplekunsuso, pune Abdülhamit gindik va ravalduga mialon winugafa pu Kurd tozekik kserayar. Pona ke bat blayeem tiyir dem nelkon Kurd greltik voxu dere Türk iku Yöruk iku iku Arab iku Türkmen iku Tcerkes. Sin gu Alayalari Hamidiye ( Hamidiye vertega ) zo yoltayad. [15] Hamidiye vertegik is Kurd tozekik va dilfura va armenik zo kalrictayad, enomason va zaipaf balikeks is bliga is aloyason va bond, mekivason va kona pursara larde va sayakaf erkey anton rupteyed. [16] Kev bata rofavera isu tizaca, armenik va artowas grustals reduyud : Hunchak pako ( zabduyuno bak 1887 koe Swiza ) is Armenafa Artowasa Galda ( ARG okon Dashnakutiun, zabduyuna bak 1890 koe Tbilisi ). [17] Likera is jalmara bak 1892 koe Merzifon az 1893 koe Tokat dilizeyed.

Jalmara koe Sasun

Zovdaks ke inc vrutasik va stakera va armenik bal Hamidiye stakera

Bak 1894 gindik va armenafe sane toz jalayar. Bata brazara va vedeyevaf trakuray ke armenikeem tupoayar. Taneaf satcaf meld ke armenafa acagira koe Sasun dilizeyer. Elodesik ke Hunchak pako dum satcon Mihran Damadian is Hampartsoum Boyadjian is Hrayr va acagira va jontolafa koaykara is Osmanlı brazara bristuyud. ARG va irubasik ke gola ervoayar. Armenik va turkafa sanelia is Kurd vertegik koe Sasun molikeyed voxe dikote tere zertuyud, is nope turkafa emnagasa ravaldara meviele rewatana. [18]

Dulzatason va acagira koe Sasun, bowesik ke Muş kategiyir nume plataeyer da lizukaf islamevik va armenik tsuneyed. Patrick Balfour izvopik suteyer da batmana stakera tujdeson koe mazjida zo bokayad. [19] Abdülhamit gindik va ervolia is Kurd vertegaki ko gola stakseyer. Tizuca zo mopleyer nume vas loa armenafa widava ke Osmanlı gindaxo uzeyer. [20]

Stakera

Rumeaf kosik ke stakera kes va naboxa koe armenafo awalkikxo ke Erzurum, 1895

Armenaf kosik ke stakera ko bru koe Erzerum awalkikxo zo kotawad

Gijarotiaca ( Britana is Franca is Rossia ) poayad da Abdülhamit va warzaf fabdus enk mukotas va kastara va roti ke Hamidiye vertegeem ba saneaksat ke 1895 sugdayar, voxen bancoba dum Berlin bioga meviele di zo rewayar. Ba 01/10/1895 tol-decitoy armenik kabelcas koe Konstantinopolis is erus va koskura va fabdura tizon gan Osmanlı ardial zo gwarded. [21] Moi sugdara va fabdus enk, gindik co dakteyer : « Bata arienta koe fortey jiadatar. » [22]

Fure stakera va armenik koe Konstantinopolis dilized aze va arak ke winkeem saneliakiraf gu armenik mopler, ko Bitlis is Diyarbakır is Erzurum is Mamuret-ul-Aziz is Sivas is Trabzon is Van. Konak decitoy olkik gan islamevaf vegungik is boweref sayakik zo aytayad aze jontikar bak olgaf fentugal ke 1895-1896 awalkeyed. William Sachtleben amerikaf felusik tigis koe Erzurum moi stakera ke 1895 va moxinafa nakila inton rabateyena koe twapa pu Times fela pwadeyer :

Coba jinon wiyina ba bat teveaviel [ 01 ke santaneaksat ] mevielu tir gretcayana koe swava ton ana relkafa disukexa rowina gan ayik. Do tan susik ke englafe ikapermaxe is tanoy sayakik is jinaf remsutesik is tanoy ( armenaf ) afigasutesik ko Gregorian awalkikxo laniyí [...] Kene lenteon rebava, ton emacek mantaf vas 6 m- is abrotcaf vas 46 m-, 321 awalkoda ke stakeyen armenik tigiyid. Jontik sin al zo buxayad. Wiyí da gexata ke yona kan vordavara ke gamiafo ervo moi xonukera al zo selupuyur. Berga ke yonar kan dugara riwe al zo remgabeyer. Ast ke tanoyo alto varon al zo basalmayar isen pandeem gabeyen miledje cot ke ma basalmayan. Eruyú kase vakol va batcoba al askiyid. « Volgue, turkik kan wed al askid. » Mon san-toloyo alto lokon al zo anteyayad. Vageeem ke kota awalkoda vaxe tanoya ok toloya kiltafa vagela al mbi nabeyer... Xonukera bal doaliera kev takrelik tir to lancoba ; wonton stakesa xonukesira va merojunik gan nyukaf is ervokiraf sayakik tir to arcoba. [23]

Gustave Meyrier francaf ikapermik ke Diyarbakır pu Paul Cambon permik va yona rupa icde armenikya zagayana az aytayana isu rumeik pwadeyer ise va relingasik « nyukaf lidam udutaf » pimtayar. « Bantan me dilfuyud lize korik va int korojuyud voxe va merojuna revava elodeyed. » [24] Ana virnura koe Urfa dilizeyer lize Osmanlı milk va armenafa wevala anteyayar liz 3000 armenik al gelbeyed, aze va kot lagotces korik viltayar. [25]

Dalaf suteptik ke Abdülhamit koe namio icde gindik suteyer da in « va boksafa is eaftafa gaderopa kev armenikeem djukustayar nume va nuva skapon podasa jupekason narayar... benplekuyur da kota parlera ik kona keyaksera do armenik en di zo taruteyer isen gorukafa dendara tenutceteson di zo gonaskuteyer. » [26]

Pisonara kali 1897 zo wanuyud. Bak ban ironokaf ilanacek, Abdülhamit gindik dakteyer da armenaf uum tiyir tenutceyen. Jontik armenaf artowasik al zo aytayad oke ko Rossia al otceyed. Osmanlı bowere va armenaf seltom al buder ise va armenaf gaderopaf lizor al kalirutar.

Yona mearmenafa doda bal stakera dere zo dilfud. Francafa dobulafa daalara nedir da Hamidiye vertega va osk armenik voxosk assurik blis koe Diyarbakır is Hasankeyf is Sivas is aryono xo ke Anatola stakeyed. [27][28]

Xonukikaf laot

Armenikya do yon nazbeik gelbeyes nope stakera is trasiyis va pomara ke alkavuidanik arti lanirapa koe suriafo letaxo.

Gadiskaf rumeik nope Hamidiye stakera

Mekase rogrupet ote armenik zo aytayad, beka woda ozwana gan izvopik tid vas 80 000 ik 300 000 xonukik. [2]

Johannes Lepsius germanaf gertik va orig icde vilara is stakera cobekon kayestayar nume vas xonukera ke 88 243 armenik is tusutara va 546 000 olkik is vilara va 2493 wida ( don 456 wida dem irubasikeem poanon deweldeyen gu islameva ) [29] is tirbura va 649 uja is tucpastaxo ( don 328 betayano gu mazjida ) [30] patavason naavdar. Va ota ke loplekuf armenaf awalkik golde ael ik akola vas 100 000 dere uldineyer. Trabe va kotak vas mon 200 000 korik.[31]

Ostik britanaf permik uldiner da 100 000 korik kali toza ke santoleaksat ke 1895 zo aytayad. [32] Wori stakesa rekola kali 1896 slayar. Ernst Jäckh germanaf eldaf kaatoesik is turkopik ruyeyer da 200 000 armenik zo xonukesiyid isen 50 000 zo aloyayad isen tan-celemoy zo elakeyed ise zo azregeyed. [32][33] oltavafa woda gan Pierre Renouvin francaf dobulaf izvopik zo ozwar, i gan izvopik ruyeyes da remi inaf zanugal male garif valdig, 250 000 armenik awalkeyed. [32][34]

Valey armenik, mon 25 000 assurik is rotir 100 000 ellasik dere zo xonukesiyid. [5]

Walvedeyafa kategira

Warzot ke armenafa stakera koe gindaxo, koe Europa is Tanarasokeem manton zo emuzeyed nume va kireptafa kategira ke divefe bowere is ayafamaf grustaks is feleem nekiyid. [35] Britanafa rubiana is yunkekskirafa fela va stakereem belon besayad. Tulon Punch safteafa fela va konak sanoy ozaks kaatoes va twamera sanegayar. [36] Ostik Leslie Rogne Schumacher izvopik stragar da stakera remi yona tanda levi Taneafa Tamavageja « va betawesa tamava dem europaf walvedeyaf skedeem tcazedayad ise turestayad. » Batcoba va skeda ke Britana tove Osmanlı gindaxo tuaxayar ise va gluyeem do Rossia tupoayar. [37]

Francaf permik va Turka pimtayar : « enteyepesa », « dem stakera kotlize »; isen kot kristevik « mewaltrakunon » zo adjubed. [38][39] Francaf ikapermik dakteyer da Osmanlı gindaxo « va kristevaf patectolk adre vanmecobayar », kaliskeson da « Kurd greltokilik tukulutason stale kristevik is daniaskison va rinta ke intaf ervolitik rotegid inde djumed. » [40]

Bak lerdeaksat ke 1895, teliz ke New York Times fela gu « Armenafa Saneaytara » vergumveltayar edje Catholic World dakteyer : « Kota kofiga ke Araba va nuba ke Turka cuon me rotcater eke banvielu va kotak ke kristevafo tawavo di kevstujer. » [41] Arak ke amerikaf feleem va tegira pomatasa va armenikeem is kalsulatana « va vozakretsa ke turkafo gindaxo kan gaderopafa tegira ok ledamon vidura va wed... » kabeyer. [41] Leopold II gazik ke Belga pu Salibury britanaf eldokilik dakteyer da va intafo kongoafo jipo « ta tolgenira va Armena azu kerelera » djuprostakseyer. [42] Stakera tiyid zolonafa kerdela ke irn ke Grover Cleveland amerikaf taneagadesik isen William McKinley retik va giwara va armenik dum tana nelkafa abdukaca icde divefa gaderopa ko intaf talpey kosuteyer. [43] Amerikik sokes koe Osmanlı gindaxo va intafe bowere xuvayad enide ine kramon di sabegar. Lantan dum Julia Ward Howe is David Josiah Brewer is John D. Rockefeller va jontika erba ziliyid ise dotayad ise va grelera vanlizuketena pu armenik kan noeltaf Kerafa Gamda grustaks grustayad. [44] Aryon ayafamaf grustaks is Kerafa Gamda pomayad, stakseson va grelesaca pu ironokaf moblisik awalkes nope akola is ael. [45]

Vangira va Osmanlı omeltxe

Osmanlı omeltxe koe Istanbul, 1896

Vangira va Osmanlı omeltxe ( turkavon Osmanlı Bankası Baskını is armenavon Պանք Օթօմանի գրաւումը ) tir bifa dilzeyesa koe Konstantinopolis kelu ke Osmanlı gindaxo ba 26/08/1896. Mukot ke bata sopera stana gan 26 ervokiraf bewik ke Armenafa Artowasa Galda gaden gan Armen Garo is Papken Siuni tiyir nazbara va vofara ke zolonafa europafa gijarotiaca fotisa itabudesa va brazara va turkaf armenikeem is refa Hamidiye stakera. Banugale Osmanlı omelt tir avegap ke walvedeyafi erbaroti ise va jontik britanaf is francaf boaks malgir. Omeltxe remi 14 bartiv zo levkereler. Zauzenon, jontik decemoy armenik ke Konstantinopolis tid kosaf gu stakera edje Abdülhamit gindik gu gasizara va xe dratcer. [46] Debala va maltegira ke europaf dobulik nekir, i ke dobulik seotas va divgiwodara va vangiyis artowasik van Franca. Vangira va Osmanlı omeltxe gan europaf feleem taxas va takreluca is zobes va armenaf mukot lovackon zo pestaler. [47] Soe mecoba ta tukiewara va gropeem ke turkaf armenikeem zo askir kore stakera gan europafa soka zo lanzar.

Stakera va armenik koe Konstantinopolis

Ozaks va Abdülhamit gindik, dalaf blodik ke aultovesa stakera

Zauzeson, stakera va armenikeem tigis ok irubas koe Galata revava isu Pera kalfir [48], edje Osmanlı ji va dilizera isked. [49] Başıbozuk erbudik ervoayan gan gindik va armenikeem ke widava vajiked. [50] Sedme divef dobulik, Osmanlı rictaga « va aytara va armenik volkare klaa ik ikra remi tolka » pu tari gransed. [51] Sedme De La Boulinière francaf dobulik koe Konstantinopolis : « Koe Galata, armenik okridon awis ok divlanis otceteson van lomusafo xo stalcenon ok aziloblanon ok nubemanon vere zo aytayad. Armenafa dolta zo elakeyed ise zo torsayad, digisik zo laridagabeyed isen tariikaj va mona foruldasa vas armenik ipeyed, tsaxason va tuvel is empason va dilk. » [52] Loplekur : « Sielcekon, kotlize koe widava, koe Galata is Perchembe-Bazar is Bechuchtache is Tophane is tite dace Yldiz venta is koe Kassim Pache is poke britanafe permaxe, milafa nakila dere sokiyid. » [52]

« Entcabanera va armenik » [52], bata stakera va bar-decitoy ik balem-decitoy kosik [53] ( fuxe kotak vas tevoy-decitoy ik per-decitoy ke armenikeem ke Konstantinopolis ) nekid aze jiadad oxam viele gindik tere tsuner. [51] Sedme Armen Garo, bata bifa litesisa va direfa kroguca pu Rossia plataer da ina sayakon egadar [54] nume va intafa tigira koe Tcerna Bira laumar. [55] Kivason va rossiafa walpira, Abdülhamit II va awalkopera va armenik tutenayar neke va 61-e teliz ke Berlin bioga wan merewar. [55]

Stakera va armenikeem ke Agn

Ba 15/09/1896 arti baroya safta radimi vangira va omeltxe, Osmanlı rictaga va stakera va armenikeem ke Agn sopeyed, i ke Agn widava tigisa koe Kharberd ( Harput ) ronefa winka kir koblixo ke Papken Siuni. Sedme munesteks ke francaf permik, Osmanlı milk va cugon 20000 armenik koe Agn don « ayikya is rumeik » co stakeyed. Sedme ar munesteks tel ke britanaf ikapemik koe Harput male woda dafuyuna gan turkaf flibik, 15000 xonukik don 200 ayikya is rumeik co tiyid. [56] 980 mona fuxe 1500 tigisa koe armenafa revava zo elakeyed aze zo anteyayad. Toleaf munesteks suteyen gan mil britanaf ikapermik pebur da yontara ta bata rujara tir « merontifa benplekura » ke gindik ruyes da « armenik ke Agn fu dimveged numen lizukafa rictaga fiste di sabegar ». Koe mil munesteks britanaf ikapermik soe pebur da bata rodaxara tir rigotiskafa. Ant abica viltaxa koe empa ke firdeyana mona zo katrasiyid. [56] Sedme Vahakn Dadrian armenaf izvopik, stakera va armenikeem ke Agn tir toda ke « dofa estera ton aultovesa stakera ».

Rotuxas munesteks ke Osmanlı roti

Mali taneafa stakera aze remi yona darefa tanda, Osmanlı rictaga va geltruca ke dilizeyes bifeem is kosikafa ota dovoron rotuxadayar, lasukevbuiveson va tamavaf trakulikeem da dalafa bloduca tiyir tela ke miv armenik. Winugaf munesteks va batyona remtrakusa yovara amuzeyed. Wori, taltekaf felusik dum George Hepworth koyayas koo Armena az negayas koe « Koo Armena lapison » ( Through Armenia on Horseback ) neva, va geltruca ke askikseem amidapafa gu tela ke winugaf munesteks vrutayad. [57]

Osmanlı winugafa givaklita va xonukikaf laot tuvestayad ike dimtazukayad. [32] Bata dovorafa yovara va dimtazukara va wodeem gan Phillip Currie britanaf permik koe twa pu Salisbury dalaf eldik tulon zo stragayar.

Izvopa

Lan aneyasik dum Mkrtich Nersisyan sovietaf izvopik isu Ruben Sahakyan isu John Kirakosyan isu Yehuda Bauer az lonoelton Benny Morris is Dror Ze'evi koe « Barsandafa saneaytara » ( The Thirty-Year Genocide ) neva boyad da stakera ke 1894-1896 va taneafa nesida ke armenafa saneaytara tadleyed [58], voxen lo kotlizvopik va bata tentura gu 1915-e iku 1923-e ilanacek kimad. [59]

Dere rupec

Armenafa Saneaytara

Stakera ke Adana

Lofa belira

  • (en) Akçam, Taner (2006). A Shameful Act : The Armenian Genocide and the Question of Turkish Responsibility. Macmillan. ISBN 978-0-8050-8665-2.
  • (en) Balakian, Peter (2003). The Burning Tigris: The Armenian Genocide and America's Response. New York: HarperCollins. ISBN 0-06-055870-9.
  • (fr) Clemenceau, Georges. Les massacres d'Arménie: Témoignages des victimes. Paris: Édition du Mercure de France, 1896.
  • (en) Ministère des Affaires Étrangères. Documents diplomatiques: Affaires arméniennes. Projets de réformes dans l'empire Ottoman, 1893-1897. Paris: Imprimerie nationale, 1897.
  • (en) Howard Ball. Genocide: A reference Handbook
  • (en) Campbell, George Douglas. Our Responsibilities for Turkey: Facts and Memories of Forty Years. London: J. Murray, 1896.
  • (de) Divef Eldik. Die grosse Politik der europäischen Kabinette, 1871-1914, vol. X. Berlin: Deutsche veragsgesellschaft für politik und geschichte, 1922–1927.
  • (en) Great Britain, Foreign Office. Correspondence Relating to the Asiatic Provinces of Turkey, 1892-1893, Sess., 1896, XCV (A and P) c. 8015, Turkey No. 3, 1896; Correspondence Relating..., 1894-1895, Sess., 1896, XCVI (A and P) c. 8108, Turkey No. 6, 1896; Correspondence Relating to the Armenian Question and Reports from Her Majesty's Consular Officers in Asiatic Turkey, Sess., 1896, XCV (A and P) c. 7927, Turkey No. 2, 1896.
  • (en) Harris, J. Rendel, Letters from the Scenes of the Recent Massacres in Armenia. New York: Fleming H. Revell, 1897.
  • (en) Lepsius, Johannes. Armenia and Europe: An Indictment. London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1897.
  • (en) Melson, Robert. A Theoretical Enquiry into the Armenian Massacres of 1894–1896, Comparative Studies in Society and History, 24, n° 3 (1982), bu 481–509.
  • (en) Nalbandian, Louise. The Armenian Revolutionary Movement: The Development of Armenian Political Parties through the Nineteenth Century. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1963.
  • (hy) Nersisyan, Mkrtich G. Զեյթունցիների 1895–1896 թթ. Ինքնապաշտպանական Հերոսամարտը. Patma-Banasirakan Handes. N° 1–2 (143–44), 1996, bu 7–16.
  • (en) Rodogno, Davide. Against Massacre: Humanitarian Interventions in the Ottoman Empire, 1815-1914. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2012.
  • (en) Schumacher, Leslie Rogne. Outrage and Imperialism, Confusion and Indifference: Punch and the Armenian Massacres of 1894-1896. Koe Comic Empires: Imperialism in Cartoons, Caricature, and Satirical Art, Richard Scully & Andrekos Varnava, 305-333. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2020.
  • (en) Suny, Ronald Grigor. (2018). The Hamidian Massacres, 1894-1897: Disinterring a Buried History. Études arméniennes contemporaines, 11, 125-134.
  • (en) Troshine, Yvan (January 1897). A Bystander's Notes of a Massacre: The Slaughter of Armenians in Constantinople. Scribner's Magazine. XXI (1): 48–67.
  • (en) Verheij, Jelle (2018). The year of the firman: The 1895 massacres in Hizan and Şirvan (Bitlis vilayet). Études arméniennes contemporaines (10): 125–159. doi:10.4000/eac.1495.

Vuestexa

  1. 1,0 et 1,1 (en) Adalian, Rouben Paul (2010), Historical Dictionary of Armenia (2nd ed.), Lanham, MD: Scarecrow, bu 154
  2. 2,0 et 2,1 (tr) Akçam, Taner, İnsan Hakları ve Ermeni Sorunu, İttihat ve Terakki'den Kurtuluş Savaşı'na, az (en) A Shameful Act: The Armenian Genocide and the Question of Turkish Responsibility, bu 42, 2006, Metropolitan Books, New York, ISBN 978-0-8050-7932-6
  3. (en) Fifty Thousand Orphans made So by the Turkish Massacres of Armenians, The New York Times, 18/12/1896, "Uldinera ke alkavuidanik, va ota ke armenaf rumeik leon santoldaf tugadiskayan gan stakera ke 1895 tir vas 50 000."
  4. (en) Akçam, 2006, daref vuesteks, bu 44
  5. 5,0 et 5,1 (en) Angold, Michael (2006), O'Mahony, Anthony (ed.), History of Christianity, 5. Eastern Christianity, Cambridge University Press, bu 512, ISBN 978-0-521-81113-2
  6. (en) Cleveland, William L. (2000). A History of the Modern Middle East. Boulder, CO: Westview. bu 119. ISBN 0-8133-3489-6
  7. (en) Akçam, 2006, daref vuesteks, bu 36
  8. (en) Akçam, 2006, daref vuesteks, bu 43
  9. (en) Akçam, 2006, daref vuesteks, bu 44
  10. (en) Dadrian, Vahakn N. (1995). The History of the Armenian Genocide: Ethnic Conflict from the Balkans to Anatolia to the Caucasus. Oxford: Berghahn Books, bu 163. ISBN 1-57181-666-6.
  11. (en) Stephan Astourian, On the Genealogy of the Armenian-Turkish Conflict, Sultan Abdülhamid, and the Armenian Massacres, Journal of the Society for Armenian Studies 21 (2012), bu 185
  12. (en) Stephan Astourian, On the Genealogy of the Armenian-Turkish Conflict, bu 195
  13. (hy) Azat S. Hambaryan (1981), Հողային հարաբերությունները: Հարկերն ու պարհակները koe Հայ Ժողովրդի Պատմություն, ed. Tsatur Aghayan & al. Yerevan: Armenian Academy of Sciences, vol. 6, bu 49-54
  14. (en) Astourian, Stepan (2011). The Silence of the Land: Agrarian Relations, Ethnicity, and Power, koe A Question of Genocide: Armenians and Turks at the End of the Ottoman Empire, ed. Ronald Grigor Suny, Fatma Müge Göçek, Norman Naimark. Oxford: Oxford University Press, bu 58-61, 63-67
  15. (en) Klein, Janet (2011). The Margins of Empire: Kurdish Militias in the Ottoman Tribal Zone. Stanford: Stanford University Press, bu 21-34
  16. (en) McDowall, David (2004). A Modern History of the Kurds, Ed. London: I.B. Tauris, bu 60-62
  17. (en) Nalbandian, Louise (1963). The Armenian Revolutionary Movement: The Development of Armenian Political Parties through the Nineteenth Century. Berkeley: University of California Press
  18. (hy) Kurdoghlian, Mihran (1996). Պատմութիւն Հայոց III. Athens: Council of National Education Publishing. bu 42–44
  19. (en) Lord Kinross (1977). The Ottoman Centuries: The Rise and Fall of the Turkish Empire. New York: Morrow, bu 559
  20. (en) Hovannisian, Richard G (1997). The Armenian Question in the Ottoman Empire, 1876–1914 koe The Armenian People From Ancient to Modern Times, Volume II: Foreign Dominion to Statehood: The Fifteenth Century to the Twentieth Century. Ed. Richard G. Hovannisian. New York: St. Martin's Press, bu 223. ISBN 0-312-10168-6
  21. (en) Balakian, Peter (2003). The Burning Tigris: The Armenian Genocide and America's Response. New York: HarperCollins. bu 57–58. ISBN 0-06-055870-9
  22. (en) Salt, Jeremy (1993). Imperialism, evangelism and the Ottoman Armenians : 1878-1896. London u.a.: Cass. bu 88. ISBN 0714634484
  23. (en) Ozwaks koe Gia Aivazian (2003), The W. L. Sachtleben Papers on Erzerum in the 1890s, koe Armenian Karin/Erzerum, ed. Richard G. Hovannisian. UCLA Armenian History and Culture Series: Historic Armenian Cities and Provinces, 4. Costa Mesa, CA: Mazda Publishers, bu 46-47
  24. (en) Ozwaks koe Claire Mouradian (2006), Gustave Meyrier and the Turmoil in Diarbekir, 1894-1896, koe Armenian Tigranakert/Diarbekir and Edessa/Urfa, ed. Richard G. Hovannisian. UCLA Armenian History and Culture Series: Historic Armenian Cities and Provinces, 6. Costa Mesa, CA: Mazda Publishers, bu 219
  25. (en) Kieser, Hans-Lucas. Ottoman Urfa and its Missionary Witnesses koe Armenian Tigranakert/Diarbekir and Edessa/Urfa, bu 406
  26. (en) Dadrian. History of the Armenian Genocide, bu 161
  27. (en) De Courtois, Forgotten Genocide, bu 137, 144, 145
  28. (en) Travis, Hannibal. Native Christians Massacred: The Ottoman Genocide of the Assyrians During World War I, Genocide Studies and Prevention 3 (2006): bu 327-371
  29. (en) Selim Deringil, 2009, "The Armenian Question Is Finally Closed": Mass Conversions of Armenians in Anatolia during the Hamidian Massacres of 1895–1897, Comparative Studies in Society and History 51, bu 344-371
  30. (en) Hovannisian. The Armenian Question in the Ottoman Empire, bu 224
  31. (en) Forsythe, David P., 2009. Encyclopedia of human rights. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0195334029
  32. 32,0 32,1 32,2 et 32,3 (en) Dadrian. The History of the Armenian Genocide, bu 155
  33. (de) Jäckh, Ernst. Der Aufsteugende Halbmond, Berlin, 1916, bu 139
  34. (fr) P. Renouvin, E. Preclin, G. Hardy, L'Epoque contemporaine. La paix armee et la Grande Guerre. Paris, 1947, bu 176
  35. (en) Gary J. Bass, Freedom's Battle: The Origins of Humanitarian Intervention. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2008; Balakian, The Burning Tigris
  36. (en) Schumacher, Leslie Rogne (2020), Outrage and Imperialism, Confusion and Indifference: Punch and the Armenian Massacres of 1894-1896, koe Comic Empires: Imperialism in Cartoons, Caricature, and Satirical Art, Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2020, p. 306
  37. (en) Schumacher, Outrage and Imperialism, Confusion and Indifference, bu 326
  38. (fr) Cambon, Paul (1940). Tome Premier (1870–1908): L'établissement de la République – Le Protectorat Tunisien – La régence en Espagne – La Turquie d'Abd Ul Hamid, vol. 1 of Correspondance, 1870–1924. Paris: Grasset, bu 395
  39. (en) De Courtois, Sébastien (2004). The Forgotten Genocide: The Eastern Christians, the Last Arameans. Piscataway, NJ: Gorgias Press, bu 106–10
  40. (en) De Courtois. Forgotten Genocide, bu 138
  41. 41,0 et 41,1 (en) Oren, Michael B (2007). Power, Faith, and Fantasy: America in the Middle East 1776 to the Present. New York: W.W. Norton & Co. bu 293. ISBN 978-0-393-33030-4
  42. (en) Hochschild, Adam (1999). King Leopold's Ghost: A Story of Greed, Terror, and Heroism in Colonial Africa. Boston, MA: Mariner Books. bu 167–68. ISBN 0-618-00190-5
  43. (en) For a study on the American response to the massacres, koe Ralph Elliot Cook (1957), The United States and the Armenian Question, 1894-1924, Unpublished Ph.D Dissertation, Tufts University.
  44. (en) Dromi, Shai M. (2020). Above the fray: The Red Cross and the making of the humanitarian NGO sector. Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press. bu 72. ISBN 9780226680101
  45. (en) Oren. Power, Faith, and Fantasy, bu 294–96
  46. (en) Donald Bloxham, The Great Game of Genocide : Imperialism, Nationalism, and the Destruction of The Ottoman Armenians, Oxford University Press, 2005, 352 bu (ISBN 978-0-19-927356-0), bu 53
  47. (en) Peter Balakian 2004, bu 107-108
  48. (fr) Kutcupsa n° 236 ke 26/08/1896 : M. de la Boulinière, chargé d'affaires de France à Constantinople, à M. Hanotaux, Ministre des Affaires étrangères, bu 264
  49. (fr) Kutcupsa n° 237 ke 26/08/1896 : M. de la Boulinière, chargé d'affaires de France à Constantinople, A S. Exc. Tewfik Pacha, Ministre des Affaires étrangères de Turquie, bu 265
  50. (en) Peter Balakian 2004, bu 108-109
  51. 51,0 et 51,1 (en) Peter Balakian 2004, bu 109
  52. 52,0 52,1 et 52,2 (fr) Kutcupsa n° 254 ke 03/09/1896 : M. de la Boulinière, chargé d'affaires de France à Constantinople, à M. Hanotaux, Ministre des Affaires étrangères, bu 272-282
  53. (en) Mobs killed more than 3,000, The New York Times,‎ 29/08/1896
  54. (en) The Occupation of Bank Ottoman, dene Armenica.org, bu 258
  55. 55,0 et 55,1 (en) The Occupation of Bank Ottoman, dene Armenica.org, bu 259
  56. 56,0 et 56,1 (en) Vahakn Dadrian, The History of the Armenian Genocide : Ethnic Conflict from the Balkans to Anatolia to the Caucasus, New York/Oxford, Berghahn Books, 2003, 480 bu (ISBN 978-1-57181-666-5), bu 146
  57. (en) Hepworth, George H (1898). Through Armenia On Horseback. New York: E. P. Dutton & Co. bu 239–41
  58. (en) Benny Morris & Dror Ze'evi, The Thirty-Year Genocide: Turkey’s Destruction of Its Christian Minorities, 1894–1924. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2019
  59. (en) Richard G. Hovannisian (2007), The Armenian Genocide: Wartime Radicalization or Premeditated Continuum? koe The Armenian Genocide: Cultural and Ethical Legacies, ed. Richard G. Hovannisian. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers, bu 9–11. ISBN 1-4128-0619-4
Hamidiye stakera
Armenik aytayan koe Erzerum, afigasuteks gan William Sachtleben, santaneaksat ke 1895
Ugal is xo
Evla 1894 - 1897
Patecta   Flag of Turkey.svg Turka ( Osmanlı gindaxo )
Debala Konstantinopolis is ronefa Turka
Ord is jala
Ord Aultovesa stakera
Jala Lokon armenik, is dere assurik
Kosikeem   ≈ 80 000 - 300 000
betara teza
P Parthenon 2.svg  Tuveli icde Izvopa  P Parthenon 2.svg