Griruntara va Kulak

Griruntara va Kulakrossiavon раскулачивание ) tiyir rujasa tawukara koe TSSS stayana kev Kulak tawadayikeem. Keni poasa tudonara va taway bak torkugal ke Stalin wali 1929 is 1933 dilizeyer. Adala ke bata gaderopa tiyir sopera is stolera is enomara is lanzara gu xonuka is rezgalerapa.

Mukot ke bata tizafa rujara pilkovon tiyir osk tawadayafa yasa nuve kulafa voxosk mialukaf tawadayikeem is yasik, voxis irubasik ke tawaday meyotes va gaderopa ke doevafo pako ( DPTS ). Mon 30 000 korik zo zeltayad. Mon 2.1 celemoy korik ko sumefa is volluvedafa gola zo rezgaleyed, don 1.68 ik 1.80 celemoy bak 1930 is 1931 [1][2][3]. Ison 2 ik 2.5 celemoy korik van taway dem lowawaf sid koe intafa gola zo divmimayad [1]. Ozodik uldined da ael is akola is klibura va bli ke 530 000 ik 600 000 korik tiolteyed [4]. Tawadayik bak nelkon 1930 acagipison kategiyid. Jontika exura kev tizuca ke soka va tawaday tegulayad. Konakviele flibik ke pako is soka kivayad da tawadayikafa acagira ko varafa patecta di divatceyer nume ditoz artowayar.

Griruntara va Kulak va tawadayikeem gu altokafa vanmecobara is rezgalera is enomara dratceyer. Batkane in va kiewatca ke tudonara gopomayar. Danexa di tiyir da griruntara is tudonara va varaf tawadayikeem gu stujera ke soka gruideyed ise va seltafa prostewafa tawadayikafa linulara webepeyed. Milugale griruntara ta tujadiara va Gulag bolk rigotayar.

Pendara va griruntara is poana tudonara is aryona rujasa sabegara jupayar da atitsura ke tawamidusa skapa koe jontika gola ke Sovietafo Tanaxo di dilizeyer, i koe pilkovon gola prostewon volderokafa gu warzera. Bata atitsura tiyir tana lazava ke Golodomor bifa ( 1932-1933 ), i tcalase aelegale nekiyise va xonukera ke 5 ik 7 celemoy korik.[5]

Ludev is abdiizvaModifier

Tawadayik is Bolcevik pakoikModifier

Bolcevik kevsokara bak saneaksat ke 1917, tisa korotira kan po ke pinepapafo pako, kan kexi icde taway va enomara va tawayaf pilkot is pilkot ke ujabolk is xida is walzilira va tawayeem ke Mir dof bolk tumwedar, i va enomara skuna gan tawadayik mu dilint. Kali tena ke Rossiafa Wideytafa Geja ( 1921 ), batcoba vas tunuyara gu geja ik stege me sugdalar kiren tawadayik gan Kerafa Ervolia oku Batakafa ik aryona acagisa tawadayikafa ervolia ( tulon Exura ke Tambov ) zo komilkayad. Ison va zolonafa kucilodara va tawamiduraf warzeks golevgayad, i va kucilodara ke Bolcevik pakoik anamsteges. Wideytafa geja is kerafa maya isu batakafa is exura is kucilodara iskedara va miduraf lag jupayad da aelakola koe widava is tawaday dilizeyer nume mon 30 celemoy korik bak 1920-1921 zo vanolayad, don 5 celemoy xonukeyed [6][7][8].

Warzafa Skapafa Gaderopa ( WSG ) [9][10][11] dem adja vas « gaderopafa kesa tegira ta stekefa skapafa gaderopa » [12] va « moavugal » mu wideem is tawamidura dakteyer.[13] Va spuera is vorotcera wal Bolcevik bolkikeem is tawadayikeem tudiliodayar voxneke mekotron deokayar. Gaderopaf gadesik va enomara gu koaykara ton taneon warzeks az erba ikaplekuyud. Ison va girefa exonera va yona dolebelafa poopula ta vanlizukedara va rob icde tawamiduraf warzeks levrictayad ; ostik va taneaskira tuvedeyasa va digiks ke tawadayikeem daneyayad, i ke tawadayikeem banlize tadlesa va 85 % ke varafa sanelia.[14] Voldum inafa rietodafa vodjura, Bolcevik bolk va skapa van likon sokafa is likon dirotevafa nia banugale zo gogadeyer.[15]

Radimi divwidara va Bolcevik enomas dostak is mayesis blay ke Tceka ardial, liza nijuyur da doevikeem va meka omava dive widava dadiyir.[16] Sovietafa vertuma vile cug tawadayik al zavzayar divefa gijarotiaca.[17] Tove flibik ke pako, tawaday tiyir wupesis megrupen siday dem merokofina seltafa anameda.[18] « Wida » sedme sin tiyir leca ke bumpuca is sugda ke guazafa Rossia dem « brija is suroga » ( Trotski ).[19] Jontik gades flibik va tawadayikeem jontikeke ilkadeyed, don tulon Stalin is Lazar Kaganovitc is Grigori Ordjonikidze is Anastas Mikoyan is Kliment Vorocilov is Vyatceslav Molotov.[20][21] Miv wida fereon tisa a kota kelda isu goleba van « seltay » tiyir kotrafa gu nisu is olutuca is folixa is ruyatakola is tizuca.[22] Widafa doda kan widafa koka ( сход, sxod ) gan int zo ristur. Kizey ke widaf soviet wasten gan doevikeem kevoke zavzar keskiskaf.[23] Dimtubliara va tawamidurafa skapa gan WSG va felisi tiki vadjesi va manbat skapind videyer.[24] Kota batcoba va « abduxoaf » torigiks ke doevikeem vol vadjeyer. Cug tawadayik va warzaf tazuk ke soka is widavafa blirinda icde lidafa is gaderopafa is arayafa is skapafa kerdela vewayad. Batdume Bolcevik bolkikeem va tawadayikeem rodaxayar nume torigiyir da in co di rotiyir dimplekusik va diroteva. Pilkovon Kulak katcolk nutiyid volnik.[25]

Dre ke tawadayikeemModifier

Bak WSG ugal, baxek ke tawadayikeem ke varafa sanelia vantenuyur. Bak 1924, 83.7 % ke sovietaf wideyikeem koe wida bliyid, voxen bak 1930 fuxedecemoda ware tiyir vas 80.7 %. Neken belikoda ke irubasikeem ke wideem al laumayar ; dace baskason va tuwidavara, laumara al tiyir vas 4.2 celemoy korik. Milugale widafa sanelia tiyir jotafa. Otulara bak 1926 nediyir da loon 50 % ke bata sanelia tiyir klaafa gu leon 20 tanda.[26]

Marxevafa envara va tenturacka va pulabolk va omava male ugaf tikieem ke tawaday me trasiyir. Widaf irubasikeem va konaka skapafa yorda darpe ilanacek kereleyed : va tawadayikeba bak idulugal, az cadimafa ok ogafa kobasikeba bak fentugal, voxis pisusikeba ik vielafa dodedikeba bak warolarugal kare cadim. Seltafa amiduca me al kadayar « pulabolk ».[27] Wori marxevaf skapasik isu enkopik ke Sovietafo Tanaxo, kan intafa divlizesa remtrakusa antoka, va wideem ko bat seltom pulayad : [28][29][30]

  • Taneon, lospa dem tawayiskaf midus kobasik ( batrak ), dum bonolsusik is vielkobasik is dielsusik. Jontik bewik ke bata loma tiyid jotaf az va int divlomayad viele va warzafa blisa nesida denfiyid, va tulon kurera [31];
  • Wawik tiyid tawadayik dikote digis va taway ta sinkara va yasa. Loviele va mek impokas bonol digiyid. Va intafo kobaso po div pilkot wetce dielsusik ok vielaf kobasik oku cadimaf golizukedayad [32]. Kotote, radimi wideyatafa geja, tawayiskikeem is wawikeem va 35 ik 40 % ke tawadayafa sanelia tadleyed [33];
  • Ara lospa wetce mialukafa tawadayikafa lospa zo pilkomodayar. Inaf bewik va dalafe tande ke tawadayikeem tadleyed isen baxek kadimi wideytafa geja gu 55 ik 60 % zo uldineyer [34]. Mialukaf tawadayik tiyir digisik va diel saven kan int is intaf mergileem. Ziliduks tiyid volakenaf voxe ta pomoyara va blira ke yasa stapeyed ise va dolera va abica slikaca noveyed. Va loplekuf foalk dile gobeituyur ise va telyon intaf dile beitayar. Va abic bond dereon digiyir. Remi fentugal, bewikeem ke lospa va ogafa kobara adaeyer. Va averd kum benjada is oksi ik vefasiki tulon warzeyer. Mialukaf tawadayik gitiyir dalaf warzesik va zaipa vankolana ta vaneksara va widaveem, batdume vas obrarapa ke WSG mukayar [35];
  • Sedme trakula ke sovietaf marxevik ke ban ugal viunsus va tawadayaf arienteem, Kulak tawadayik va tela dalafa skapafa gijarotiuca dadiyir. Ison envaks va ildroasa sugdala dikiyir ise wetce savesik va wida tentuyur. Luda pulasa va kon tawadayik ko Kulak loma meviele tiyid aftafa maneke miv Stalin koe intyona straga nueyer : « Tokcoba dye tir Kulak ?» Dace beitara va midu ik foalk ok digira va impokas bonol ok unera va vielkobasik va jontikar widik dere tikiyid [36][37]. Cugon mon alub-vuntoy diel tiyid ke batmana loma ; batcoba va mon bar-celemoy korik vadjeyer, trabe 2 % ke va exomeem. [38]

Poana turabaraModifier

Kan gorara va poana turabara va Sovietafo Tanaxo, Stalin va gorukafa vlupexa ke Viankap aykayar. Mali awalkera ke Lenin bak taneaksat ke 1924, osk taltokevaf kevusikeem al zo ceneyer voxosk ronokevikeem ke pako aname Nikolay Buxarin alutayas ta lunten armor ke tuwitasa abduxoa zo divlapur. Xialara va kaliapafa turabara kan taneaf alubdaf azed ( 1928 - 1932 ) vanikatcuyun bak 1929 zo muxar enide skapafa is brubeopafa vwa ke rabafa patecta bad tanoya sanda di zo gluyonar. Stalin torigiyir da mana vonesa ticfira tiyir adrafa gu kwituca, inde bak toleaksat ke 1931 [39] drigdar kiren sedme dalint vegungafa patecta va kevvilara va Sovietafo Tanaxo kobaveyed.[40] Acum fosara va gamiafa turabara kabdue taneafa azenta abdue tela ke kiewegafa raba tigir.[41]

Larde turabara kan savera va boniaxo mei rostbeitura bas divexo me zo rofukorlar, pune sedme Stalin tawadayikeem mbi goculiekar. Tadlexa is kiewega adrafa gu vegedura va raba kan divburera va zaipa zo gofukorlad. Voxisen dace tawadayik va tawamiduraf arsayeem lusteyen bas int mea di mbi kaldoder.[42][43] Batkane Stalin va tawadayikeem gu teco koefo boniaxo askiyir, i gu boniaxo lizu dirot ta skapafa vonera zo gomaldeswayar.[44]

Tudonara va tawamiduraModifier

Gorara va poana tugorara va patecta va ubzera ta tudonara va tawamidura vadjeyer. Nekev zolonafa galbedusa sugara is jontika ristulafa xuvara, tudonara kali tena ke 1920-e sanda abiceke al abdufiyir. Bak 1926 koe Sovietafo Tanaxo, 18 000 mana dotegisa jeara anton tiyid. Pilkovon kiewegiskaf tawadayik ko batman kolxoz diel al gelbeyed. Sokaf sovxoz diel dace leote tiyid.[45] Bak 1929 baxek ke tawadayikeem jovleyes va intaf pilkot tiyir vas 7.6 %.[46]

Gadesikeem ke pako aname Stalin va zolonaf waks ke tudonara va tawamidura pokoleyer. Milugale krupteyer da prostewaf tazukeem ke tawamidurafa skapa al mudzeyer, ise nope rietovafa lazava ilfiyir nume icde dere bat ind va azedera is gadera ke soka abdiwiyir. Laxa ke pako bak balemeaksat ke 1929 gorayasa va taneaf alubdaf azed gu abdiwiks va int omavayar, i gu abdiwiks abduaykayas da teni 1932 mon 23 % ke tawamiduraf jeem di zo tudonayad. Arti abic aksat moi san-toleaf ilanuk ke Artowara ke Saneaksat, Stalin va teliz vergumveltaf gu Ilanacek ke viankap sanegayar.[47] Ruyeyer da mialukaf tawadayikeem va donaf diel jontikote di kofiyir. Mukotana woda ta tudonara zolonapon kadimion zo laumasiyid : mukot ke tawamidura koton tudonayana arti abic aksat vols konaka tanda di gonaavdayar. Ba 05/01/1930 Poliburo viley ke doevafo pako ke Sovietafo Tanaxo va kotrafa tudonara va yona nelkafa tawamidusa gola tori cugeke muvugal ke 1931 gorayar.[48][49] Tegulara is stegera tove patceta vas bat goraks di maletiyid.[50] Kiewatcaf munesteks va sugareem nuruyeyed : mali toza ke toleaksat ke 1930, enkopik va baxek ke tudonayan diel koe varafo Tanaxo gu 31.7 % az 57.2 % ba 01/03/1930 gunesteyed. Icde Sovietafe Sokasane ke Ukraina, woda tiyir vas 60.8 %, ise vas 60 ik 70 % icde Volga idjafa is vatitefa gola, ise vas 83.3 % icde Tcernozyom gola.[51]

Deona ke vaneksaraModifier

Warzera va umafa tokoda ke zaipa zavzayar dakis zvak tove Bolcevik bolkik bak cade ugal ke WSG. Bak muvugal ke 1925, gadesikeem ke pako va lusteso dro laumasiyir kiren dika zaipa zo trasiyid, numen batkane vaneksasa debala zo dimatceyer. Bak fentugal ke 1927-1928, kevusa gejopa zo ikagorayar : plekason va stegera is « cugunaykafa sabega ». Stalin buntuyur da Kulak tawadayik ta seotara va drorso va zaipa getuyud. Kadimion Bolcevik bolkik va wawaf tawadayikeem kev Kulak lakevmadayad. Koe galbedura, Kulak bewik gu zukena erbugara zo kagayad numisen rankera va sin zo koldayar isen gakerapa vas baroya ik aluboya stolesa tanda zo ploteyed. Sokaf viley va zaipafa eksa enomayad ise va « gables oyap » vas tanoya balemeaca ke vannariyina voda pu givasik mododeyed. Bata stegesa sabega va telyona ke Wideytafa Geja divedjon tikiyid.[52][53]

Wori danexa zavzayad morafa. Isti 1928 gadesikeem ke doevafo pako va rujasa gaderopa jovleyer numaze va dolebelafa poopula gin dosteyer. Bata volukafa gaderopa ke Bolcevik bolk stibuskasa wal stegera is dezura va rodaxara ke tawadayikeem iljoayar. Gadesikeem ke pako va lustera va derokafa zaipa bas divexo malgorayar, numen prostewaf divburesik va zaipa mali taneatomon jontika tanda vanpiyir kobures. Bak fentugal ke 1928, beg zo gokoirutayar, tison taneaca mali tena ke wideytafa geja.[54]

Voxen bak 1929 gadesikeem ke pako bankrileyer nume va rujas mergileem ta kevseotara va zaipa faveyer.[55] Batcoba tulon tiyir drikackafa kiren koefa turestara ke « ronokevikeem » koe pako alutasa va aulaf vopes armor parmon cugeke su zo kastayar. Stalin re tiyir tirkon gu anamstegera a beta acagira.

Luistava dem stegesa sabega gu lana nuva ape gruvdafa zo tukotrayar : i gu « uralsibirafa » nuva [56][57] vey gola lize ina taneatomon zo rewayar. Tana satcaca ke bata nuva tiyir da widakoka dem wawaf ik mialukaf tawadayik va baxek goverkan gan Kulak tum ke zaipaf kotak gokalbilden gan varaf widikeem gorayad. Mancoba mukotayar da kevkulakafa gaderopa ke Bolcevik zo zobeyer isen miledje lazavacka ta pursara va Kulak korik meskus va exoneyen wizap tiyid. Pursara va gaves Kulak tawadayik tiyid laumasirapa va wiz ik divpilkotara ik dace rezgalera.

Warolara valeve eka ke 1928 zavzayar beka ewava ke tukiewayana debala gan galbedusikeem zo atoeyer. Taruteson va dratcesa encura, gobildes wiz zo laumasiyid. Kota wida va gotuyuna aksateafa tokida godafuyur. Widavaf kucilodasik va batyona tokoda warolayad.[58]

Levgasa acagira isu tegisa me ilpiyir. Jontik tawadayik va bondeem balieyed ise va zaipa kotawayad oke anteyayad. Va bolkik djuvangiyis va zaipa dilfuyud oke koanteyayad.[59][60][61] Voxen bata acagira zavzayar kiewatciskafa. Bolcevik okilik mali santoleaksat ke 1929 dakteyed da abdiwiks tori fentugal ke 1929-1930 riwe zo zomeyed. Voxen batcoba tiyir teca Pyrrhos cenera : po ke tawadayikeem al zo kaikuldineyed isen megaks ke direfa tanda riwe me kruldeyed. Jontik tawadayik va diel jovleyed numaze va une den widavafa vonena raba kaaneyayad. Ostik tamavafo dro ke zaipa nope tamavafa skapafa deona al atitsuyud eke Bolcevik bolk va vugarn is foalk adraf gu vegedura va intafa raba umote mea rolusteyer.[62]

DilizeraModifier

Daktera is goraraModifier

« Va Kulak titon !» Finta ke sovietafa galbedura (1930). Krent koe xuta : « Kulak tid lozugaf is lotizaf is logovitaf savesikaj : bak izva ke aryona patecta va roti ke tawayaf pilkotikapeem is gertikeem is dirotevikeem jontikviele ilsulayad. Lenin ».

Bak laxa dem tawamiduraf aptacik ba 27/12/1929, Stalin va kota rieta koplekusa va Kulak korik gu warzaf kolxoz diel malyopapar. Ikaon va « vilara va Kulak runt » dakter. Va « vajikera va dirotevaf korikeem koe wida » kaber nume batinde va gejacka kev tawadayikeem [63][64][65][66][67] ok wideem tuyer.[68]

Tore melanuca icde furefa dilizera ke bat vilarask tir kiren narura va dakteks ke Stalin az fosara tiyid lag ke lizukafa rictuma. Nekev namafa bazesa enja bas Moskva, zolonafa griruntara va Kulak bak taneaksat ke 1930 koe jontika gola tozuweyer, i koe tulon Ural is Lentekavkaza is Ukraina is Ryazan winka poke Moskva.[69] Tawuk tupoapawer numaze va premap koe varafa patecta nekir.[70]

Ba 15/01/1930 lana tuzda taneatina gan Vyatceslav Molotov pokef odiaxik ke Stalin, va tenekara va nelkotapeem ke tawuk griruntas va Kulak gorar. Politburo viley ke DPST va bat lag pu « Molotov tuzda   mali santaneaksat ke 1929 al odiayar. Tuzda vas suteptikeem ke pako koe golapa ke midura va dent is suteptikeem ke rezgalexofa gola ruldayar. Genrix Yagoda ( levokilik ke OGPU ardial ) is Sergey Sirtsov [71] ( taneatisik va saneramisavikaf pirdot ) is Yakov Yakovlev is Nikolay Muralov is Moisey Kalmanovitc ( saneramisavik va sovxoz dieleem ) is Tixon Yurkin ( gadesik va viley viunsus va dofa skapa ) is Grigori Kaminski is Karl Bauman ( taneaf suteptik ke pako koe Moskva winka ).[72][73][74]

Ba 30/01/1930 Politburo viley va drageks ke tuza ton « Icde sabega ta deokara va Kulak exomeem koe tudonackayano tawavo » piskot naler.[75] Koe gola dum Lentekavkaza is idjafa is katitefa Volga lize kotrafa is kaliafa tudonara zo guzekayar, kot diel ke Kulak zo godivilkayad. Kiewega ke Kulak tawadayik zo enomayad, isen batcoba vas kobas is warzes mergileem is werdolaf balikeks is faytawaza is bondeem is dielaxeeem voxis artazukas mergileem tikiyir.[76] Goraks ke Politburo va tawadayik eckindan wetce Kulak ton baroya loma walmuneyer :[77][78][79][80][81][82]

  • Taneafa loma vas askisik va « kevartowasa tegira ke Kulak » ruldayar. Batmila vas tawadayik kevus va tudonara donariyir. Goraks va woda vas 60 000 korik icdeon bazeyer. Tori megotun jijacek ko avplekuso pemaxo di zo gorezgaleyed. Ede bewik ke batmila loma al jalmayad, pune « loboksafa rujasa sabega » zo gonarayad : malyerariskafa klibura. Bloduca icde bewikeem ke bata loma tiyir ke OGPU viley radimifiyis va Tceka ardial ;
  • Toleafa loma vas kot tawadayik torigin gan Bolcevik bolkik gu lokulaf Kulak ok mialapilkotik ruldayar. Battan do yasikeem ( vas kotote 150 000 yasa ) zo gorezgaleyed, ko letafo volludevaxo ke sumefo Lentexo ( 70 000 yasa ) ok Sibira ( 50 000 yasa ) ok Ural ( 20 000-25 000 yasa ) ok Kazaxa ( 20 000-25 000 yasa ). Rezgalenik va abic warzes mergil is abica eksa ronodivbureyer. Korik ko bata loma mal goraks ke « neda dem wawikeem ke wida » is gadesik ke kolxoz zo pulayad ;
  • Bareafa loma vas korik djumarplekun koe vofa gola ruldayar. Battan gan kolxoz gadesikeem van divatce dem sidaj zo arplekuyud. Kiewega ke lomikeem pakon zo enomayad. Inafa ota tir yosafa, vas 396 000 ik 852 000 ebava. Lizukaf soviet pirdot is viley ke pako va tawadayikeem ke bata bareafa loma gofeliayad enide ta gridubura ik wasarnara ik vegedura va vawa is aryona milafa tegira di uneyed.

Goraks ke 30/01/1930 va tcilafa ugalxuta tentuyur. Lik ke divilkareem is kostolereem va bewik ke taneafa loma is lanote ke toleafa loma tori 15-e ke balemeaksat icle di zo goskuyud, az arak abdi tena ke alubeaksat ke mil ilanacek.

Uum icde unenikeem is drokeem dere al zo verkayad. Tanta ke OGPU ke Moskva winka isu Leningrad isu Ivanovo isu Nijni Novgorod isu Xarkiv isu Donbass al zo dirgayad da va 1100 ayik goyuteyed. Ison 2500 bewik ke pako ta griruntara va Kulak zo gotixayad. Pirdot dem saneramisavik va drokaf azed ta senura va warzafo pemaxo koe sumefo lentexo is Sibira arti barka atoeyer. OGPU va azed ta rezgalesa remburera kan impadimak kal rezgalexo arti alubka gonatoeyer.[83]

Tici toleaksat ke 1930, Molotov va pakesikeem va birgafa laxa xuvayar, i va laxa dye eksudayana ta koskura va griruntas tawuk is katanayasa va zolonaf flibik ke pako ke galdolkeem ke TSSS, dineteson va rowokapa is drigdason da Stalin is Kaganovitc is int tiyid blodik ke tawuk. Pu birgusin pakesikeem drigdayar da meguliasa tizuca ik xonukesira tiyid adrafa :

« Dirnuson gokalí da viele palik bal kabelcara ke santaneaksat ke 1929 va toka diweda titisa tove Kulak tawadayikeem eruyud, pune al kalí da tode kona daniaskisa kuksa co krulder, pune di zo gowizur. Kuksa kotlize me krulder, trabe dulzera me stapeyer [...] Cwe voletraká, merewason va beta rujara, pune mecoba dilizeter. Va sin gonoklibutut. ( Iegaks : Arplekut ‼). Taneaf otuk : klibutut, toleaf otuk : arplekutut [...] Tire va vusa rujasa sabegara gononarat. Arbe arplekura va umi saneliaki van yona gedrafa nia, batcoba me guyundeter. Tokliz godivtunset ? ( Iegaks : Den Eyce [ Taneaf suteptik ke DPTS koe taltefa Sibira ]). Ko rezgalexo ; ede kono dene Eyce krulder, pune batcoba den Eyce titir. » [84][85]

Moi koflira, griruntas dostakokilik va meguliara maldineyed. Lan blodik pu levzokevenik tuelimayar :

« Kotviele dilfuc, me saac ‼ Va aeles nazbeikeem ke Kulak ilkik me trakuc ‼ Orkon gu runtafa lyumara, ayafamuca va runda me trasir. » [86]

Stalin bak 1930 va meldara va Kulak tawadayikeem gu « geja kali xonuka » dere adalayar.[87]

Zugiafa galbedura va dilfura ke soka kev lan koriktum buntun gu gestafa gomilara dositayar. Lana finta [88] va taneaf Kulak tawadayik leve krafol ke impasiko, is va toleaf dum jidol vanbedes va zaipa, is va bareaf mouvas bene mouvo ke jaftolya, valeve « Va Kulak ilkikeem wetce runt fu vilat ‼» kompleks nediyir. Staksa tiyir namafa : Kulak me tiyid ayik vols bonol.[89]

Yordara ke OGPU vileyModifier

Kan griruntara va Kulak, OGPU viley va liota ke artowasa is rujasa ma ke pako is soka [90], dum Tceka bak artowara is wideytafa geja, gin tugodjayar. Miledje griruntara va Kulak tiyir intafa dalafa lagara mali 1921.[91] Wetce ardial ke Sovietafo Tanaxo, OGPU va dinera kaikfipisa va telyona ke yon daref ilanacek mbi koaykayar : i va datafa guinera is sayakaf tawuk kev acagira ke tawadayikeem is remburera va rezgalenik voxis vonera va intafa tegira koe wideem.[92] Levegasa kobavera keni pirdara ke Molotov tuzda dilizeyed. Vamoekafa yordara gan Efim Evdokimov [93] zo askiyir, i gan semekapayan kevlik ke Yagoda dene birgafa zanela is odiaxikack ke Stalin.

Ba 02/02/1930 arti barka radimi gorara grirunkasa va Kulak ke Politburo viley, 44/21 piskot gan OGPU zo divplekuyur, vergumveltaf gu Icde vilara va Kulak runt.[94] Va davafa tazukara va bara dogadesa va winkafa tanta ke OGPU benplekuyur. Mana neda dem baroy gorasik ( tisa eaftuckus viley remi izva ke sovietaf flavaf rujareem mali wideytafa geja kali stakera ke Katyń )[95] vas lizukaf kaatoesik va birgaf ardial is taneaf suteptik ke neda ke pako is taneagadesik ke sovietafa skusa neda ruldayar.[96] Va Kulak ke taneafa loma kan wilufa diotexa milafa gu tela ke erkey malyeyer ise gu flintafa ok rezgalesa ok klibusa gakera luke gubef erkey ik mwafa diotexa lanzayar.[97] Askipera va Kulak ke taneafa loma tiyir edjiskon gofosatana sedme piskot ke OGPU. Ostik lospaxo ta nivafa rezgalesa remburera zo gotazukayad.[98] Piskot benplekuyur da kota tanta ke OGPU va tweem pu sayakik ke Kerafa Ervolia is divexo gokalstujeyer.[99]

Tanefa nesidaModifier

Lizukafa rictaga ke pako va goraks ke gaderopaf gadesikeem numon is wiluon rewad. Bewik ke OGPU gu benplekuks ke idja ke OGPU ke Moskva milinde askid. Taneaf munesteks ke 06/02/1930 pu Yagoda va 15 985 kostolera dakter, az 25 245 arti barka. Ba 15/02/1930 varaf kotak ke murobayana kostolera tir vas 64 389. Cugaf wiz vas 60 000 zo kaikfiyir.[100]

Ara weltafa lospa tid kosafa gu rujara. Stoles rukom va savsaf ardialik ke rossiaf gindugal, is savsaf batakaf fayik, is tawadayik gedis va yambudafa ja, is widaf gruadik, is savsaf dolekik is aryona seltikinda dere kalfir.[101][102] Isen kotviele tegisik va tudonara is griruntafa va Kulak va gertik ke kota alka dilfuyud : gertik koe cuga wida zo stoleyed ike zo divilkayad ike zo divstakseyed. Jontikviele alkaxe zo budeyed. Tegisik va jontika ujabiota maltioteyed ise va sanefa anteyara va brija grustayad.[103] Koe munesteks ke 15/02/1930, Yagoda va zolonafa atalera dineyer kiren vordavara va anton Kulak tawadayikeem govanolayad.[104]

Koe munesteks ke OGPU, divatce ke tizura zo bazecker :

« Wawaf tawadayik is tawayiskik va Kulak korik lebaf ko nuda al aloyad, alieson, va uliraja koe dilintyona mona al grustad, vamo taka al viltad, al poad da sin va intafa naboxa gosuxad, va sinafa ayikya al basvaged, al joxayad, va tcazafa muka is erba ikz- al dubieyed. »
« Griruntasik va fentugalafe vage is fentafa vagela is taneon vukudeem gu wawaf tawadayik al tiolted. Va Kulak korik tis ton pami al isked ise va kotcoba al narid, don dace guazaf loyaf vukudeem is ayikyafe vage is yelada vas 50 kopek is nornokay is abday ikz- [...] Taksa va kotcoba enomayad, don dace mernama favena ta tildera va taka ke rumeik. Va kurfa div tey deswayad aze empayana brija va mopleyed. »[105]

Gutoeem is varafa kolna ika stogama ke vodacka pu warzaf digisik dile zo xaadayad lodame den « meroripindano bo ke kolxoz diel » co zo gonarbureyed inde batcoba sye zo savsuter. Enomara batinde kadayad elakera ik jaxadara tove savsaf kevelik.[106][107] Jontikviele ayikya bak sopura grirunkasa va Kulak zo boeyed ( tula koe Azara [108]).

Gadesikeem ke pako koe Moskva gu ilamotafa tizura gan munesteks mal winka zo givayar voxe me maltegiyir ; volson : Grigori Ordjonikidze is Lazar Kaganovitc is Anastas Mikoyan is Vyatceslav Molotov va rieta ke debala pu int lizukon askiyid ise va tizafa sabegara kev Kulak tawadayikeem laumasiyid.[109] Ostik ban toloy ironokaf gadesik va tizura miv pakeyed, grustason va brinuga kan azakedayan impadimak is okolervoliafa tazda ke OGPU.[110]

AcagiraModifier

Tawadayik taneon kevud, dizuson doleson va digiks ok miv int vilason is baliepeson va bonol : 26.6 celemoy bonol is 15.3 celemoy okol batenide zo aytayad. Bowere kan kexi ke 16/01/1930 dulzavar, i kan kexi rictasi va enomara va digikseem tod baliera va bonol.[111] Tawadayik pu sokafe de dere kategid : remi 1930-e ilanacek, rictaga gu temera is favigey zo wizuckuyur kane staksesik va rokazelara is enomara is divstaksera temeyed ise va apudojara va bat sabegeem maldineyed.[112][113]Tikisik pu kurenik is nazbeik ik berik zanivas koe Kerafa Ervolia, icde tizura koe wida suteyed ; eruson va konendara, dile sanelia ke wida va sayakaxe miv kereleyer.[114][115]

Jontik sayakik isu fayik ke ervolia va tudonara is grirunkara va Kulak tawadayikeem tire vewayad. Ervolia luxeon me tiyir etuden zobesik ke pako.[116] Koe konaka gola, bewik ke lizukaf viley ke pako is lizukafa ervolita va griruntara me djupakeyed. Avak ke OGPU ruyeyer da jontik winugik isu turestasik va « volnaf korik » loyaston ok dace yason paskaleyed.[117]

Jontik tawadayik kev tegisik va tudonara is griruntara toz tizuckuyud. Dokobasik ke OGPU va laumasa ota dem tawadayikafa acagisa tsunera munesteyed. Bak taneaksat ke 1930 sedme birgardial, 402 exura ik flavafa exaksara zo patayad. Bak toleaksat, ota tiyir vas 1048 aze 6528 bak bareaksat.[118] Icde 1929-e ilanacek isu 1930-e, OGPU va varafa ota vas 22 887 « tueaftasi tegi » ozwar, viele mon 1100 kaatoesik ke soka ik pako zo xonukesiyid.[119][120] Widik yateyes golde griruntas dostak, jontikviele va ton blay sint tankotayad aze dratceyed ise va kolxoz diel dun tolgeniyid.[121] Koe konaka gola, koe tulon refa Azara, sokafa vura dive winkaf widoteem atitsuyur ; tawadayikaf blay va yona kotrafa widava dum Quba is Ordubad is Naxçıvan lajukostujeyed.[122][123] Koboda wal vertuma is tawadayikeem tuolgaweyer nume va « wupepesisa debala » nekiyir.[124] Warzot icde glupafa acagira koe Ukraina is Kazaxa is idjafa gola ke Tcernozyom ik Sibira va kivara ke yon flibapik ke pako laumasiyid.[125][126] Isti toleaksat ke 1930, Grigori Ordjonikidze bewik ke Politburo viley isu Mixail Kalinin va ritara eruyud, numen battan va abduaxa koe Ukraina miv arevlayar.[127]

Pendaropafa ritaModifier

Ba 02/03/1930 Pravda fela va teliz ke Stalin vergumveltaf gu « Fansila ke kiewatca » sanegar.[128] Batcoba tiyir kategira ke okilik ke pako va tawadayikafa perzura koe varafa patecta. Divpakudeteson va wupesira va deona ke vertuma gan bat anamgimawes tawadayikaf exureem, Stalin va « bulfera is iltazukawera » malyopar. Armor ke tudonara tir loeke wiluf numen ristulafa xuvara va tawadayikeem tir rokla. Stalin va lizukaf gadesik wetce vajulen bonol anton narar. Miledje va drowigafa kuranuca ke tudonara abduplekur. Va gildura is rubuca tove tawadayikeem batkane nukevnedir.[129]

Konak celemoy tawadayik va kiewatcaf dakteks ke Stalin sopteyed. Va teliz ke Stalin ton batakafa liwa ta flavafa yatera va kolxoz diel naruyud. Ota ke tudonayan ebaveem jontikeke titfiyir. Ba 01/03/1930, uldinera va ota tiyir vas 57 % voxe arti toloy aksat ware oxam tiyir vas 28 %. Koe gola ke Tcernozyom, bata voda mal 83 % kal 18 % titfiyid,[130] ise koe Moskva winka mal 73.6 % kal 12.3 %.[131]

Perzura koe tawaday dun sokiyid kiren tawadayik va dimdubiera va intyona pasuxa is jiadara va tudonara is griruntara va Kulak is jiadara va kevalkaf tawuk dineyed. Mon 20 % de enomayamb yaseem teni temotara va pasuxa tire mbi di dimdubieyed.[132] Acum jontik enomambik di va erura kan tizuca lasutcedeyed. OGPU remi batyon aksat va 6500 flavafa exaksara patayar, don 800 viltanon rujayana. 1500 flibik zo bakayad oke zo aytayad.[133]

Pakesikafa ota dene bata perzura laumapayar : bak taneaksat tiyir vas biwe 109 000, vox ticfiyisa kal 214 000 bak toleaksat ; bak bareaksat ke 1930, aptacik ke birgardial va loon 1.4 celemoy perzusik kopatayad.[134]

Toleafa nesidaModifier

Teliz ke Stalin koe Pravda fela ke 02/03/1930 numen flavafa yatera div kolxoz diel isen tumantawera ke tawadayafa acagira soe tiyid tcilafa tcedera ke tawadayikeem. Toleafa runta ke griruntara moi warolara teni idulugal ke 1930 zo tozur. Sedme Bolcevik gadesikeem, Kulak tawadayik ixam al zo kalceneyed. Dilfura va « warzaf Kulak » zo gojupayar : va 'abiceke Kulak is pokef Kulak. Bak santoleaksat ke 1930, bat tawuk va stegesa sabegara gin nekiyir.[135][136]

Doplekutuson va toleafa nesida ke griruntara, Politburo bak bareaksat ke 1931 va drowigafa « Andreyev tuzda » inkeyer, i va tuzda yoltkirafa gu Andreyev banugale tiyis okilik ke viley kodisukes va kobasikeem is tawadayikeem. Ticemaf flibik ke OGPU dene bata koka loote tiyid, don Yagoda.[137] Mali 20/02/1931, Politburo al kobenplekuyur da OGPU va divstaksera va 200 000 ik 300 000 tawadayikafa yasa di levegayar.[138] Ota vas 120 000 ba 05/04/1931 gan Politburo zo kastayar.[139] Sedme enkopaca ke OGPU, 265 795 yasa vas 1 243 860 ilkik bak 1931 geltron zo rezgaleyed : 95 544 yasa ko Ural zo vanstakseyed, 54 360 ko Taltefa Sibira, 11 648 ko lentefa gola, is 5778 ko sumefa roneka ke Sovietafo Tanaxo.[140] Ba 10/04/1932, Andreyev tuzda va arplekura va 30 000 ik 35 000 yasa juikeyer ; ton woda laumasiyina vas 38 000 yasa gan Politburo ba 16/04/1932.[141] Bak 1933 loon alub-vuntoy korik al zo gorezgaleyed. Tikis goraks ke Politburo ke 05/07/1933 tiyir :

« Betason va goraks ke 08/08 ke avakafa neda is pirdot dem saneramisavikeem, bal 1933-e ilanacek valey 124 000 ixam divstakeyen korik re tigis koe pemaxo ok moe kelda, 426 000 ar korik ko kobaso boniaxo ( trudposelki ) koe taltefa Sibira is Kazaxa zo gostakseted »[142] ( kobaso boniaxo tir warzafa yoltara va « aptafo boniaxo »).

Andreyev tuzda teni 1932 zo solelayar. Ba 08/05/1933, Stalin is Molotov va tawuk kev Kulak tawadayikeem kan azavzare pu OGPU is alyerotafa rictaga is nedeem ke pako parmon tutenayad. Gijarotiuca ke « runtaf volnikeem » koe wida nuve al zo empayar numen linvera va griruntara va Kulak va turestara ke Bolcevik koe tawaday co di uspewayar.[143]

Tawadayikafa acagira va toleafa runta griruntasa va Kulak is tudonara nijuyur axapafa lodam va taneafa kiren tawadayik gan sokafa flavafa rujara wanuna jontikeke al zo tuaxayad, is gan sopron ael is kivara va jongolafe aelegalepe.[144]

RezgaleraModifier

Rezgalera va Kulak tawadayik, 1930-1931

Tawadayik narayan ta rezgalera kal yono kabelcaxo az lanyona golda taneon zo vanstayad lize debala loviele tiyir krogafa.[145] Banlize va metuidulayane dolekafe omaze gorundanyad, i va omaze moion belcatane ton rezgales impadimak. Mali acku ke toleaksat ke 1930, zalor divstakses va Kulak tawadayik zo bokayad, i zalor remi dile loon toloya safta. Azed ke OGPU va 240 impadimak dem 53 omaze ( dem 40 korik fuxe omaze ) icde taneafa griruntasa nesida abdiwiyir. Rezgalera dile tiyir gavesa, ton abrotcifa vukira koe mubesa golda. Acum lizukafa sanelia va rezgalera rovrutayar ise va meayaf sok ke remburera kan donafa twa pu Moskva lanzayar.[146][147]

Jontikviele korik abdi mallapira ke zalor gu tcazaf neleem zo nabeyed numen aldo rictano vas tukseem is bligeem vas 30 pud is 500 rubl talolk fuxe yasa zavzayar rietovafa. Munesteks ke OGPU stragayad da enomara is elakera is dubiera bak zalor wan zo askiyid. Jontikviele rezgalenik dem dikote vage isu xeka isu guto artlapiyid.[148]

Bal nokiera ke artlapira, vanbureyena tuksa jontikviele zo drasuyud. Rezgalena yasa loviele zo solstayad, ayikye defrese va kobara ko idja ke patecta zo arbureyed solve ar yasik ( gadikya is rumeik tis leon san-tevdaf is guazik ) van golda koe rezgalexo ok zeviandasa vreda zo vodjuyud. Larde vredafa enja kruldeyer, pune yasa ko idja ke patecta dere zo rembureyed. Jontik munesteks ke OGPU stragackayad da koe artefa gola, lentegitison va orara ke bat tawadayik aloyayan div ebava, meka grustasa abdiegara loviele al zo abdiwiyir.[149] Saneramisavaf kodisukesik va sok ke zeviandas vredeem malyopayad ; cuga vreda tiyid zionafa is orikafa is fentafa is « cugeke » kerelersena.[150][151]

Eksara va rezgalenik gu blotara wan tiyir jontikeke dika numen aelera kaliapon divlizeyer. Zinera ke blotaransa is fentod ok idulod is voltipufa gropa va konakakola nekiyir, nope tulon rumeikeem. Akolereka ke divblinikeem va buok ke nivafa sanelia alubon kaikfiyir. Bata blisa gropa va mulufterekapa nekiyid.[152][153]

Zalor, mal zeviandaso pemaxo poke artefa golda kal jonvielexo tigiso idjon ice patecta is sume remlapisa vawapa, rotiyir vas konake decemoye decitmetre. Bat bocaf greelt ke rezgalera va Kulak tawadayik ke toleafa loma vas tela rezgalera va Kulak ke bareafa loma miltayar, i va tawadayik divbliyin ko vofa gola. Bato divstaksexo koe Sibira ok Ural vawale welmot vas konake vuntoye lujorafe decitmetre tcaston tigiyid. Fentugalon zalor kan impadimot zo exuleyer, is idulugalon kan direm ok lanison.[154]

Manaf divblinikeemModifier

Vegedura va narilt ke Tcerna Bira. Dene bata pradjapa, divblinik wetce poan kobasik dere zo malsaveyed (1932).

Viele Kulak tawadayik ke taneafa loma me al zo klibuyud, pune koe flint ok rezgalexo ok kobaso pemaxo ke Gulag lasumobliyid. Yasa tiyid pak ke rezgalenikeem.

Kulak tawadayik ke toleafa ik bareafa loma stayan kal artlapis debak ta « warzesa kobara » zo gomalsaveyed : ta baliera va aal ik wasarnara va sid ik vegedura va vawa is narilt. Miledje ta pradjapa ke stalineva dum vegedura va narilt ke Tcerna Bira ok Magnitogorsk widava dere zo kokobayad.[155][156][157][158]

Warzesuca ke manaf divblinikeem ( dere yoltayan gu kobas divblinik ok kobas boniasik )[159][160][161] zavzayar jontikeke vome pokolera. Tulon bak balemeaksat ke 1931, sedme lan munesteks ke kogrupasa tuzda, anton 8 % ke 300 000 rezgalenik koe Ural tiyid « ton kobara solgabesa va inta ok aryona warzesa tegira ».[162] Aryon ayik va vredaja mu int govegeduyud ike va moblira laviunsuyud. Voxisen bato boniaxo oton gu loon 2000 [163] tiyid volmivexafo ise pu divexo gotiskayad ise gozobeyed : bildera va vegedusa ugota is xeka is foalk voxis sinka. Abdukuca ke vegedura va raba is kolxoz diel is dika dulapera is metrumuca is bazaxorotifa kroguca is kevlaca wal milneyaf kizey voxis dubiera jupayad da mana bildera me dilizeyed. Vegedura va manafo boniaxo battode zavzayar gavepefa. Vile lizukaf gadesik, rezgalenik miv tiyid gunaf kire « co vunguyud » ike co tiyid « volnik » ok « sovietfimik ». Manafo boniaxo abdi 30/09/1930 kotote zo goninkeyed. Tire ba bana evla, ant otama ke azedeyen kolneem al zo tenukeyer.[164][165]

Nope blis gropeem koe boniaxo, jontik rezgalenik otceyed ; mali toleaksat ke 1931, OGPU va 72 000 manaf divblinik otceyes murobayar. Ota ke korikeem blis koe manafo boniaxo remi 1930-e sanda dun illaumayar : bak 1931, OGPU va 1 803 392 manaf boniasik otulayar, azen ware 1 317 000 korik ware tigiyid, azen moi tena ke Toleafa Tamavageja, ota tiyir vas 930 000.[166]

Danexa is vayaraModifier

KosikeemModifier

Griruntara va Kulak va loon balem-celemoy kosik nekiyir :[167] mon 30 000 korik zo klibuyud, isen 2.1 celemoy Kulak tawadayik ke taneafa loma is toleafa loma ko sumefa is volluvedafa gola zo rezgaleyed.[1][2]. 2 ik 2.5 celemoy ar korik wetce Kulak tawadayik ke bareafa loma mo loniaaf sid koe vofa gola poanon zo arplekuyud. Awalkikafa ota tiyir vas 530 000 ik 600 000 korik. Bal remburera ok koe zeviandasa vreda ok manafo boniaxo nope akola ik ael awalkeyed.[168][167]. Ison loon tan-celemoy tawadayik va tudonas ik griruntas dostak divvawayad, abdiston yateson ko widava lize va warzafa blira di lasuvegeduyud.[167].

WanaModifier

Tudonara is griruntara va gruidera va tawadayikeem gu xialara va gijarotiuca ke soka is pako poayad. Banvielu tawadayikeem va « culiek » dinen gan Stalin ta kolnara va soka is raba gotiskayar. Tawamiduraf warzeks ta divburera ik vaneksara va widava is kerafa ervolia zo gobildeyed. Gruidera is stujera va tawadayikeem va loplawafa savera va robeem gotumusayad : va zaipa is kobarapo is taneugot is ervoliaf kseldunik.[169]

Taneafa is lozolonafa rezgalesa sabega ke Sovietafo Tanaxo bak Stalinugal [170] tiyir tela tikisa vas Kulak tawadayik ; va pendera va boniaxo ta poana kobara daskiyir, is divatcera va Gulag bolk ton manafo boniaxo koe volluvedafo tawavo. Kaikion ara merogalpena lospa ko batyono manafo boniaxo di zo kobudeyed : « aptolk selton divef » trabe lospa dem turastanik koe widava, nekis yona mikra poanon divsokemba idjon ic patecta sotre konaka vunta bak toleafa tamavageja.[171]

Vanmecobasa yawara va prostewaf dreeem ke kobara is blira koe wida va rawara va tawamidura ke Sovietafo Tanaxo daskiyir. Viele Bolcevik pakoik bak fentugal ke 1932-1933 va warzaf tawuk tianaf is volgulias kucilodas va zaipa sopuyud, pune Golodomor aelakola waroldon sokiyir, i egale nekiyise va icle 25 ik 30 celemoy aelesik [172] is mon 5 ik 7 celemoy awalkik.[173][174] Pilkovon koe to gola prostewon slikafa gu zaipa loote aelawalkik tiyid.

Tizafa urpera koe bornay ke griruntara is jadipafa acagira ke tawadayikeem va Bolcevik gaderopa is inaf tegisikeem jupayad da lidawicka ke wideytafa geja ware gepoyteyer. Gaderopaf gadesik va jadifa urbera co tisa blodafa gu zvakeem ke yavafa blira is skapa toz kivayad.[175][176]

Kaiki dace tena ke griruntara, tawadayik dasugdayan gu Kulak va rujara is xonukesa tizura me divvawayad. Titi 1933, koefa remeluxaxa zo koplekuyud. Tan mukot ke bata sabega tiyir kimera va orara ke tawadayik is otceyes divblinik ko widava ke vertuma.

Bak 1937 toleafa dilfurapa va Kulak sokiyir : orkon gu Karlerapa, gadesikeem ke Sovietafo Tanaxo kan 00447 sopusi kexi ke NKVD ardial va Kulak sopura tumwedayar. Mali anyusteaksat ke 1937 kali santaneaksat ke 1938, 800 000 ik 820 000 korik zo kostoleyed, don 350 000 ik 445 000 di zo klibuyud isen arak ko rezgalexo ke Gulag di zo divtunseyer.

Riwe 40 % ke Kulak divblinikeem tiyid leon santevdaf.[177] Viele kaiki divblira rembliyid, pune remi blira va muneltara di golyumayad kire tiyid Kulak aptolk ok oc. Radimion va intafa seltafa xanta is intyona bagala pu yasek is dace yasot gopalseyed.[178]

VayaraModifier

Vansara va zolonafa xantaza tikisa vas pinta ke tudonara is griruntara va Kulak tiyir oxam rotisa mali 1990-e sanda radimi tena ke TSSS is kofenkura va rossiafa savseluxaxa. Wali 1999 is 2003, lan dotay dem valdig watson gu batyon uum ton aluboya karba rossiavon zo sanegayar. Va waluk ke 1927 ik 1939 besar.[179] Lan divokseks ke bat xantazatum do koplekusa pebura zo kalenglavayar.[180]

Vayara al nedid da griruntara va Kulak tiyir tegis mergilap ta tudonara : ton geltrafa dratcera tove wida guyundeyer enide va lo tawadayik van kolxoz diel di poayar. Ison pilkot is digiks ke Kulak rezgalenik va abdiegara va ugol ke kolxoz diel zanudayar. Kulak tawadayik dasugdayan gu volnik ko darkapa gan flavafa rezgalera ostik zo gwardeyed ise zo sostayad. Batdume rezgalera va Kulak gu tela taneafa mulafa bagalara ke seltafa askipera ke stalinugal zo rokrupter.[181]

Bak izva ke Sovietafo Tanaxo, griruntara va Kulak va vlupexapa ke stalinugalafa eaftuca tazukar. Miledje va izva ke TSSS kaikfir. Jörg Baberowski izvopik is aptacik ke Stalinugal, efe vulkuson va armeniafa saneaytara ( 1915-1918 ), drigdar da rezgalera va Kulak tawadayik :

« Rezgalera grustana gan soka is awalkopera va muneltana ayafa lospa tid ra ke XX-eafa decemda. Sovietafo Tanaxo tiyir sinafa koblisa kova isen Bolcevik bolk sinaf askisik. »[182]

Manfred Hildermeier va taneaca ke yona direfa bifa gu rezgales tawuk dere torigir.[183]

Norman Naimark amerikaf izvopik krupter da griruntara va Kulak tiyir saneaytasa gaderopa. Va tumantara va giltavenaf envaks vas saneaytara drager, i va tumantara co zalena ta adalara va jontik tizus tawuk ke sovietafa izva gu saneaytara : valey griruntara va Kulak, Golodomor is mikrafa rezgalera bak Toleafa Tamavageja is Karlerapa.[184] Bata tumantara va stravok vas saneaytara kev pofa malyopara soe klantaweyer.[185]

VuestexaModifier

  1. 1,0 1,1 et 1,2 Hildermeier, 2000, bu 595
  2. 2,0 et 2,1 Werth, 1997, bu 165
  3. (fr) Montefiore, La Cour du tsar rouge, bu 86
  4. Hildermeier 2007, bu 38 sq.
  5. (de) Wolfgang Zank, « Stille Vernichtung » [archive], dene Die Zeit, 03/12/2008, krent
  6. Luks 2000, p. 160.
  7. Werth 1997, p. 140
  8. Hildermeier 1998, p. 146
  9. Hildermeier 1998, bu 253–262
  10. Davies 1980, bu 4–38
  11. Viola 1987, bu 19–23
  12. (de) Timothy Snyder, Bloodlands. Europa zwischen Hitler und Stalin, München, C.H. Beck, 2011, 522 bu (ISBN 978-3-406-62184-0), bu 33
  13. Hildermeier 1998, bu 253
  14. Werth 1997, bu 149
  15. Heinert 2004, bu 364
  16. Baberowski 2003, bu 61
  17. Davies 1980, bu 54
  18. Werth 1997, bu 150
  19. Baberowski 2003, bu 123
  20. Baberowski 2003, bu 669
  21. Baberowski 2003, bu 125
  22. Baberowski 2003, bu 62–66
  23. Baberowski 2003, bu 67
  24. Baberowski 2003, bu 69
  25. Fitzpatrick 1994, bu 29
  26. Hildermeier 1998, bu 284
  27. Hildermeier 1998, bu 290
  28. Hildermeier 1998, bu 293
  29. Fitzpatrick 1994, bu 29
  30. Divrozara va warzasaneevafa okaca ke Tcayanov : (de) Gerd Spittler, « Tschajanow und die Theorie der Familienwirtschaft »
  31. Hildermeier 1998, bu 290
  32. Hildermeier 1998, bu 290
  33. Fitzpatrick 1994, bu 30
  34. Fitzpatrick 1994, bu 30
  35. Hildermeier 1998, bu 291
  36. Hildermeier 1998, bu 292
  37. Heinert 2004, bu 367–371
  38. Hildermeier 1998, bu 393
  39. (de) Josef Stalin, « Über die Aufgaben der Wirtschaftler, Rede auf der ersten Unionskonferenz der Funktionäre der sozialistischen Industrie », dene Stalin, Werke, vol. 13, 04/02/1931
  40. Luks 2000, bu 264
  41. Luks 2000, bu 266
  42. Luks 2000, bu 265
  43. Viola 2007, bu 15, dewitca ke Stalin icde culiekara ke tawadayikeem
  44. Viola et al. 2005, bu 64
  45. Hildermeier 2000, bu 381
  46. Luks 2000, bu 254
  47. (de) Josef Stalin, Das Jahr des großen Umschwungs. Zum 12. Jahrestag des Oktober ( Ilanacek ke viankap. Tori 12-eafa ilanuk ke Saneaksat ), dene Stalin, Werke Bd. 12, 03/11/1929
  48. Luks 2000, p. 254
  49. Hildermeier 1998, bu 389–391
  50. Viola et al. 2005, bu 201–204
  51. Hildermeier 1998, bu 391
  52. Hildermeier 1998, bu 379
  53. Heinert 2004, bu 372–378
  54. Hildermeier 1998, bu 380–383
  55. Fitzpatrick 1994, bu 38
  56. Conquest 1986, bu 118
  57. Viola & al. 2005, bu 119–122
  58. Hildermeier 1998, bu 384–386
  59. Fitzpatrick 1994, bu 42
  60. Viola & al. 2005, bu 121
  61. Ta rigotafa sugdala ke fird dene kevusa tawadayikafa araya : Viola 1996, bu 121–124
  62. Hildermeier 1998, bu 386
  63. Luks 2000, bu 255
  64. Werth 1997, bu 165.
  65. Baberowski 2003, bu 122
  66. Baberowski 2003, bu 674
  67. Viola & al. 2005
  68. (de) Josef Stalin, Zu Fragen der Agrarpolitik in der UdSSR, Rede auf der Konferenz marxistischer Agrarwissenschaftler ( Gaderopaf uum koe TSSS. Dewitca bal laxa ke marxevaf tawamiduraf skapopikeem ) dene Stalin, Werke, Bd. 12, 27/12/1929
  69. Viola 2007, bu 23, 204
  70. Viola 2007, bu 22
  71. Blirizvafa giva dene (en) Sidney I. Ploss, The roots of perestroika. The Soviet breakdown in historical context, Jefferson, McFarland & Co Inc., 2009, 246 bu, ISBN 978-0-7864-4486-1.
  72. Viola & al. 2005, bu 265, giva icde kotirkara ke Bauman bal griruntara va Kulak
  73. Davies 1980, bu 232
  74. Baberowski 2003, bu 679.
  75. Viola & al. 2005, bu 228–234
  76. Baberowski 1998, bu 577
  77. Davies 1980, bu 233–237
  78. Baberowski 1998, bu 577
  79. Creuzberger 2009, bu 118
  80. Viola 2007, bu 22.
  81. Hildermeier 1998, bu 392
  82. Polian 2004, bu 71
  83. Baberowski 1998, bu 578
  84. Creuzberger 2009, bu 119
  85. Baberowski 2000, bu 618
  86. Heinert 2004, bu 379
  87. Davies 1980, bu 228
  88. Finta
  89. (de) Timothy Snyder, Bloodlands. Europa zwischen Hitler und Stalin, München, C.H. Beck, 2011, 522 bu, ISBN 978-3-406-62184-0, bu 47
  90. Shearer 2009, bu 130
  91. Hagenloh 2009, bu 55
  92. Shearer 2009, bu 130
  93. Icde klepa is zolonuca ke Evdokimov, kal (en) Stephen G. Wheatcroft, Agency and Terror: Evdokimov and Mass Killing in Stalin’s Great Terror, Australian Journal of Politics and History, vol. 53,‎ 2007, bu 20–43
  94. Viola & al. 2005, bu 238–245
  95. (de) Rolf Binner is Marc Junge, Wie der Terror „groß“ wurde., Cahiers du monde russe, vol. 42, otuk 2–4,‎ 2001, bu 557–613
  96. Werth 1997, bu 166
  97. Shearer 2009, bu 9
  98. (en) Paul R. Gregory, Philipp J. H. Schröder, Konstantin Sonin, Dictators, Repression and the Median Citizen: An 'Eliminations Model' of Stalin’s Terror (Data from the NKVD Archives), 2007, bu 6
  99. Gregory 2009, p. 175
  100. Werth 1997, bu 169
  101. Werth 1997, bu 169
  102. Baberowski 2003, bu 677.
  103. Fitzpatrick 1994, bu 59–62
  104. Werth 1997, bu 169
  105. Werth 1997, p. 167
  106. Werth 1997, bu 166.
  107. Fitzpatrick 1994, bu 56
  108. Baberowski 2003, bu 700
  109. Baberowski 2003, bu 680
  110. (fr) Montefiore, La cour du tsar rouge, bu 86
  111. (fr) Montefiore, La cour du tsar rouge, bu 88
  112. Fitzpatrick 1994, bu 67
  113. Viola 1996, bu 68–99, pinta icde tawadayikafa volgruidenuca is levgasa acagira.
  114. Viola & al. 2005, p. 268.
  115. Reese 1996, bu 33
  116. Reese 1996
  117. Shearer 2009, bu 108, 112–115
  118. Werth 1997, bu 167
  119. Hildermeier 1998, bu 395
  120. Viola 1996, bu 103–105, 108–110, vildeks va enkopaca ke OGPU icde danda is tazuk is ugalafa vonera va bata tueaftara isu darkafa tigira. Bazeckena ota dem klibunikeem tir vas mon 1200, bu 105.
  121. Viola 1996, bu 176–179
  122. Baberowski 2000, bu 632
  123. Baberowski 2003, bu 706–708
  124. Hildermeier 1998, bu 395
  125. Fitzpatrick 1994, bu 63
  126. Viola 1996, bu 134
  127. Montefiore, La cour du tsar rouge, bu 96
  128. Iosif Stalin, Fansila ke kiewatca. Uum ke fira va tawamidurafa tudonara, 1930
  129. (de) Vladimir Nevežin, « Einführung », 1930
  130. Fitzpatrick 1994, bu 63
  131. Viola & al. 2005, bu 264
  132. Hildermeier 1998, bu 396.
  133. Werth 1997, bu 168
  134. Viola 1996, bu 140
  135. Hildermeier 1998, bu 397
  136. Davies 1980, bu 379
  137. Viola 2007, bu 96
  138. Viola 2007, bu 115
  139. Baberowski 1998, wafra 4, bu 578, 593
  140. Viola 2007, bu 115
  141. Baberowski 1998, bu 578
  142. Baberowski 1998, bu 578
  143. Baberowski 1998, bu 578
  144. Viola 1996, bu 176
  145. Viola 2007, bu 38
  146. Werth 1997, bu 171
  147. Viola & al. 2005, bu 269
  148. Viola & al. 2005, bu 269
  149. Viola 2007, bu 43
  150. Viola 2007, bu 44
  151. Viola 2001, bu 745
  152. Viola 2007, bu 48–51
  153. Viola 2001, bu 743
  154. Werth 1997, bu 172
  155. Naimark 2010, bu 66
  156. Baberowski 1998, bu 581
  157. (en) Robert W. Davies, Forced Labour under Stalin: the Archive Revelations, New Left Review, n° 214,‎ 1995, bu 76
  158. Werth 1997, bu 177
  159. Viola 2001, straga 7, bu 732
  160. Werth 1997, bu 175
  161. Polian 2004, bu 76
  162. Werth 1997, bu 175
  163. Polian 2004, bu 76
  164. Viola 2007, bu 73–88
  165. Viola 2001
  166. Viola & al. 2005, bu 275
  167. 167,0 167,1 et 167,2 Baberowski 2003, bu 684
  168. Hildermeier 2007, bu 38
  169. Viola et al. 2005, bu 319
  170. Viola 2007, bu 32
  171. Viola 2001, straga 7, bu 732
  172. Polian 2004, bu 87
  173. Hildermeier 1998, bu 399
  174. (de) Wolfgang Zank, Stille Vernichtung, dene Die Zeit, 03/12/2008
  175. Viola 1996, bu 179
  176. (en) Gábor T. Rittersporn, The Omnipresent Conspiracy: On Soviet Imagery of Politics and Social Relations in the 1930s, koe Nick Lampert, Gábor T. Rittersporn, Stalinism. Its nature and aftermath. Essays in honor of Moshe Lewin, Armonk, N.Y., M.E. Sharpe, 1992 ISBN 0-87332-876-0, bu 101–120, va kivara va jadifa urbera divnedir.
  177. Kaznelson 2007, bu 1164
  178. Kaznelson 2007, bu 1173–1176
  179. (ru) Трагедия совецкой деревний: коллективизация и раскулачивание; документы и матерялы в 5 томах., (Folva ke sovietafa wida : tudonara is griruntara va Kulak ; valdig is ugota ton 5 karba), 1927–1939, Moskva, Rosspen,‎ 1999–2003
  180. Viola & al. 2005
  181. Viola 2001, bu 731
  182. Baberowski 2000, bu 617
  183. Hildermeier 1998, bu 394
  184. Naimark 2010, bu 57–74, 64, 136
  185. Jürgen Zarusky

Vuestesa nevaModifier

  • (de) Jörg Baberowski, Stalinismus „von oben“. Kulakendeportation in der Sowjetunion 1929–1932, Jahrbücher für Geschichte Osteuropas, vol. 46,‎ 1998, bu 572–595
  • (de) Jörg Baberowski, Entweder für den Sozialismus oder nach Archangel’sk! Stalinismus als Feldzug gegen das Fremde, Osteuropa, vol. 50, n° 6,‎ 2000, bu 617–637
  • (de) Jörg Baberowski, Der rote Terror. Die Geschichte des Stalinismus, München, Deutsche Verlags-Anstalt, 2003, 287 bu, ISBN 3-421-05486-X.
  • (de) Jörg Baberowski, Der Feind ist überall. Stalinismus im Kaukasus, München, Deutsche Verlags-Anstalt, 2003, 882 bu, ISBN 3-421-05622-6.
  • (en) Robert Conquest, The Harvest of Sorrow. Soviet Collectivization and the Terror-Famine, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 1986, 412 bu, ISBN 0-19-505180-7, krent
  • (de) Stefan Creuzberger, Stalin. Machtpolitiker und Ideologe, Stuttgart, Kohlhammer, 2009, 343 bu, ISBN 978-3-17-018280-6, krent
  • (en) Robert W. Davies, The socialist offensive. The collectivisation of Soviet agriculture, 1929–1930, koe The industrialisation of Soviet Russia, t. 1, London, Macmillan, 1980, ISBN 0-333-26171-2.
  • (en) Sheila Fitzpatrick, Stalin’s Peasants. Resistance and Survival in the Russian Village after Collectivization, New York, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 1994, 386 bu, ISBN 0-19-510459-5, krent.
  • (en) Paul R. Gregory, Terror by quota. State security from Lenin to Stalin : (An archival study), New Haven, London, Yale Univ. Press, 2009, 346 bu, ISBN 978-0-300-13425-4.
  • (en) Paul Hagenloh, Stalin’s police. Public Order and Mass Repression in the USSR, 1926–1941, Baltimore, Washington, Woodrow Wilson Center Press, Johns Hopkins Univ. Press, 2009, 460 bu, ISBN 978-0-8018-9182-3.
  • (de) Alexander Heinert, Das Feindbild ‚Kulak’. Die politisch-gesellschaftliche Crux 1925–1930, koe Silke Satjukow, Rainer Gries, Unsere Feinde. Konstruktionen des Anderen im Sozialismus, Leipzig, Leipziger Universitätsverlag, 2004, ISBN 3-937209-80-8, bu 363–386.
  • (de) Manfred Hildermeier, Geschichte der Sowjetunion 1917–1991. Entstehung und Niedergang des ersten sozialistischen Staates, München, Beck, 1998, 1206 bu, ISBN 3-406-43588-2, krent
  • (de) Manfred Hildermeier, Stalinismus und Terror, Osteuropa, vol. 50, n° 6,‎ 2000, bu 593–605.
  • (de) Manfred Hildermeier, Die Sowjetunion 1917–1991, vol. 31, München, Oldenburg, coll. « Oldenburg Grundriss der Geschichte », 2007, ISBN 978-3-486-58327-4.
  • (en) Michael Kaznelson, Remembering the Soviet State: Kulak Children and Dekulakisation, Europe-Asia Studies, vol. 59, n° 7,‎ 11/2007, bu 1163–1177.
  • (de) Leonid Luks, Geschichte Russlands und der Sowjetunion. Von Lenin bis Jelzin, Regensburg, Pustet, 2000, 574 bu, ISBN 3-7917-1687-5.
  • (de) Norman M. Naimark, Stalin und der Genozid, Berlin, Suhrkamp Verlag, 2010, 156 bu, ISBN 978-3-518-42201-4.
  • (en) Pavel M. Polian, Against their will : The history and geography of forced migrations in the USSR, Budapest, New York, CEU Press, 2004, ISBN 963-9241-73-3.
  • (en) Roger R. Reese, Red Army Opposition to Forced Collectivization, 1929–1930: The Army Wavers, Slavic Review, vol. 55, n° 1,‎ 1996, bu 24–45.
  • (fr) Simon Sebag Montefiore, Staline : La cour du tsar rouge, vol. I. 1929-1941, Perrin, 2010, 723 bu, ISBN 978-2-262-03434-4.
  • (en) David R. Shearer, Policing Stalin’s socialism. Repression and social order in the Soviet Union, 1924–1953, New Haven, Yale University Press, coll. « The Yale-Hoover series on Stalin, Stalinism, and the Cold War », 2009, 507 bu, ISBN 978-0-300-14925-8.
  • (en) Lynne Viola, The best sons of the fatherland. Workers in the vanguard of Soviet collectivization, New York, Oxford University Press, 1987, 285 bu, ISBN 0-19-504134-8.
  • (en) Lynne Viola, Peasant rebels under Stalin. Collectivization and the culture of peasant resistance, New York, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 1996, 312 bu, ISBN 0-19-510197-9.
  • (en) Lynne Viola, The Other Archipelago: Kulak Deportations to the North in 1930, Slavic Review, vol. 60, n° 4,‎ 2001, bu 730–755.
  • (en) Lynne Viola, V. P. Danilov, N. A. Ivnitskii is Denis Kozlov, The War Against the Peasantry. The Tragedy of the Soviet Contryside, New Haven & London, Yale University Press, 2005, 427 bu, ISBN 0-300-10612-2.
  • (en) Lynne Viola, The unknown Gulag. The lost world of Stalin’s special settlements, Oxford, Oxford Univ. Press, 2007, ISBN 978-0-19-538509-0.
  • (fr) Nicolas Werth, Un Etat contre son peuple. Violence, répressions, terreur en Union soviétique, koe Stéphane Courtois, Nicolas Werth & al, Le Livre Noir du Communisme, Paris, R. Laffont, 1997, bu 45-360.
  • (en) Nicolas Werth, Dekulakisation as mass violence, krent, dene Encyclopedia of Mass Violence.
  • (fr) Nicolas Werth, La vie quotidienne des paysans russes de la Révolution à la collectivisation: 1917-1939, Paris, Hachette,1984.
Griruntara va Kulak
Finta ke sovietafa galbedura rankesa va Kulak tawadayik
Ugal is xo
Evla 1929 - 1933
Patecta   Flag of the Soviet Union.svg Sovietafo Tanaxo
Debala Europafa Rossia, Ukraina
Ord is jala
Ord Rujasa tawukara is tudonara va taway
Jala Igeltaf tawadayikeem
Kosikeem   ≈ 4 000 000
betara teza
P Parthenon 2.svg  Tuveli icde Izvopa  P Parthenon 2.svg