Altıntepe

Altıntepearmenavon Երեզ, Yerez ) vas Moavukafa Bria turkavon sugdalar. Tiyir tel lotaltef ralmawid ke Urartu savsafo gazaxo.

Altintepe tiyir bria dem folkayenaf wid dem rasekdopewa is caxafa mawa sareon gu tena ke toleafu acku ke -VIII-eafa decemda isu -VII-eafa. Kesi poke Erzincan witafa widava koe azekexa ke ronefa Anatola varone Turka tigir. Debak bak 1938 zo kosmayar aze joxara bokayana mali 1959 va zolonafa kosmara ke pelava ke gazaxo noveyed, i va tulon iyekotafa sarma is stogoyeks ke rebavaf lingeks. Altintepe mali toza ke Iyekotugal kali Mialukugal zo kereleyer.

Debak

Altıntepe male getaltefa vansasa vawa. Werda merovansana yoke voa is weda

Altıntepe poke Üzümlü wida arte 15 km- rone Erzincan widot ke winka tigir, kimon ice azekapa remnina gan Karasu kuksa tisa tana klitavoa ke Efratos bost. Bata bria tir xanton tculkafa koron gu otsiskaf fey ontinaf vas 60 m-. Ontine tir vas 1215 m- vamoe bireka. Xakola ke briekwa tir vas 500 m-. Talte debak, mali ape sare ke Urartu, jaftoldunol is namulol koe werdxo koenino gan jontik andus narilt is voama is weda gibasped.

Izvot ke aneyara is joxara

Vawale migexeem me wid, lenttalteon. Taltafa wira. Kadimroneon Saztepe bria koe azeka

Bak vegedura va vawakelot wale Erzincan is Erzurum, dodelik va tanefa iyekotafa sarma koe Altıntepe debak bak 1938 co kosmayad. Soe ar siatos ruyer da irubasik ke vegungafa wida va tana naboxa ke caxaxo fenkuyud aze elakeyed. Trasiks pu Rawopafa Tcila ke Ankara zo doleyed. Bak balemeaksat ke 1938, fela ke Istanbul is Ankara kan yunkexakiraf teliz [1] va debak razdayad. Hans Henning von der Osten va munesteks va worara bak 1939 sanegayar, pimtason va iyekot trasiks ke fenkuyuna naboxa. [2] Bak yona direfa tanda, jwatcabanesik konakviele erniguyud. Bak 1956 dodelik ke vawafa pradja va baroya caxafa mawa fenkuyud, menendason az maninde jovleson. Taneafa opafa joxara wali 1959 is 1968 gadenon gan Tahsin Özgüç ke Ankara Kotla dilizeyed. Nelkafa joxara vas ralma is dalafa dopewa is irubaxo moe bria tikiyid.

Toleaf joxas tawuk bak 2003 bokayar, stan gan Mehmet Karaosmanoğlu dere tisu bewik ke Ankara Kotla. Bal bat tawuk, uja tigisa kevtalte bria zo grifuneyer. Bak 2006-2007 vegungaf tawek zo joxayar, vayatason va skapafa skedara ke ralma va kreyafo boniaxo ik ugalorafo pemaxo lize bondeem olyon icu 5 km- zo sueyer. Tuwavaf kimeem ke vema tir juxa ke lentefa meftava is Karasu kuksa.

Saztepe taneatomon gan Charles Burney isti 1950-e sanda zo kowediyir, azen bak 1993 Geoffrey Summers va trasiyin ugol gire gunesteyer ise va tawoldaxa evlayar. Gotuyur da sin tiyid ke Haxāmanišiya sare. Summers va vegeduyuna bada dere evlayar nume milinde zolteyer.

Izva

Liwot va grupena ralma ke Urartu

Tel losavsaf kosmaks ke joxara tid evlon gu Iyekotugal. Moe vegungafa briama, tawoldaxa ke toza ke azilugal vamoed, solve kosmaks ke to tena ke azilugal tid, trabe kaiki lubera ke Urartu gazaxo.

Urartu mali toza ke IX-eafa decemda AGJ kruldeyer. Inafu kelu moe ontinafa azekexa poke Van uzda gerone refa Turka tigiyir. Ba logijafe divatce, frofaxo kal roneon Urmia uzda is Sabalan jaka is lenteon meftavaxo valente Armena is geeon kimon ic Assur gindaxo divlizeyer. [3]

Altıntepe tiyir lotaltefo boniaxo jowon ice Frigia gindaxo. Bal divlizera gazon gu Sarduri II ( -760-730 AGJ ), roti ke Urartu icle banliz artfiyir. Dopewaf birtey bak toleafu acku ke VIII-eafa decemda ape zo vegeduyur ; caxafa mawa tid evlon gu tena ke mila decemda oku toza ke direfa. Balumayan kosuteks va Argishti II ( -714-680 AGJ ) gazik miwar. Va vugcoba ke inafa gazara vaxe abic kosuteks koe lotaltefo xo. [4] Titi VI-eafa decemda AGJ, Urartu soka idjon atitsuyur. Coba me tir aftafa kase Altıntepe is vema gan irubasik ke Urartu banugale wan zo kereleyed oken tawoldaxa trasiyina koe Saztepe vas divlizera ke Haxāmanišiya daned. Tire kiren irubasik va Altıntepe al buluyud, divbureson va pak ke kiewegeem is ugoleem. [5]

Joxayana uja ke VI-eafa decemda RGJ va frofara ke toza ke Byzantion sare wazder, isen vamoefa bada ke irubaxo va Mialukugal kalfid. Urartuavaf yolt ke ralma tir megrupen.

Pimtara va kolna

Briotsa ke Altıntepe vawale rebavega dem lipta is tuvel stas kal vageistefa bermapa tigiyir. Inaf lum bazer da boniaxo ape tiyir lizukafo ristulaxo. Pakap ke briotsa lenttalte berma tiyir revava dem folkayenafa dopewa is trist. Larde anamberebava kene azekaxo bide lanyon vegeduks ke lentef is ronef kril tigiyir, pune ape kaikion zo vegeduyur, moni tena ke Urartu sare viele lolowidlaf sayakasok va folkayera tuadrayar. Rontagentimaf korack ke lipteem dem kofo kolanixo va vegedura va rebava bak Ellenistes sare dere tiavecker.

Dopewa

Geef kril ke dopewa vawale brivekweem ke trist

Altıntepe vas cugon taltefa rasekdopewa ke Urartu gazaxo ruldayar, i vas dopewa dum kotara tarizayana gu Haldi ilamaf lorik. Trist moe balemoya divefa rebava ke rontagentimaf kusk zo vegeduyur. Kusk tiyir dem 20 intafa briva sotre teva koe kot kril giskisa va kepaita. Raporafa ekwa ke briva kali rekeugal videweyed isen kare inafa xakola, tela ke brividja vas 43 cm- ape tiyir. Moe kepaita darka wale trink gu edgarda az tawedafa bada zo besayad. [6]

Rasek ke Sushi dopewa lyon ice kusk tigiyir, radimon feremeyen, isen kolanixo vageroneon. Tiyir lujoraf dem kril vas 14 m- isen pwerte ke dzeteem vas 4.75 m-. Vegedusik va trekiskafa rebava nendoyewetesa ton snak exoneyed, i va cofuot kum jola trumon ilbodeyena az zokevexiskon aykayana moe toloy emacek. Rebava moe cofuot kum tawoldafa norka zo vegeduyud nume me di videweyed. Toloy avlak kal kolanixo stayad. Nugevo ta kudja ke lorik kabdue kadimefa rebava ke tumtaxo tiyir. Jontik firviks ton trig is kabotsa koe kabduef seg zo trasiyid. Mana rasekkorafa dopewa koe kota widava ke Urartu nuve kruldeyed.

Kolanixo ke kusk ke dopewa kabdue lentor iste geronefa rebavega rotir xanton tigiyir voxe azon mea zo rofaveyer vielu pokeyaf bermaf birtey zo kolnayar. Rontagentimaf raporaf muxelkam banlize zo kosmayar. Wale ban is geronefa rebavega, joxara va loa wukafa muka trasiyina razdayad. Baroya olkoba keve varafe abrotce ke getaltefa anamberebava tigiyid. Kolanixo ke kusk ke dopewa koe divefa rebava ke istefa olkoba ( jontolon gijafa loon dam kota krilafa olkoba ) tigiyir, ape remruyuno moi vegedura va berma. Notraf olkobeem is rebava ke kusk ke dopewa tid ke mila vegedusa nesida ise va lujoraf azent krillumaf vas 27 m- tadled. Volruptese xe dem toloya memillumafa olkoba talte kusk rotir ke are sare. Ton vreda ke gertik ok jwaxe rotir zo malsaveyer.

Berma

Ronefa alava ke divefa rebava
Rasek ke nendasa rebavega reme geef gentim ke Apadana bontapa, ronuf wiks
Blotxo valente berma. Sidponyaska ta pithoi rumela

Birtey dem rontagentimafe xe ke toleafa bada, getaltuon lentronon, abiceke lodontinon tigiyir, keve kusk ke dopewa. Koef lum ke brivakirafa bontapa ( apadana ) tiyir vas 44 × 25 m-. Toloy emacek dem baroya briva koe kota bonta va azentafa intafa kepaita giskiyid. Nendoyeweyesa brivekwa va megiltafa xakola vas 1.5 m- dir batdume rotir briva me tiyid kum inta vols kuritca. Divefa rebava kum kuritca dere tiyid zegodackafa, vafa vas icle 3 m-, ise moe cofuot kum pwertafa jola daykeyed. Tanoyo kolanixo koe lentronef gentim tiyir.

Vaxe Altıntepe, ant debak ke Teishebani isu Erebuni ( koe refa Armena ) vas xim ke rebavafa lingeks ware ruldad. Rebava ke bermafa bonta gu rebavaf lingeks evlon gu taneafu acku ke VII-eafa decemda kale ontine vas 2.35 m- ape zo zikeyed. Lingeks kev gemafa bada kum giroda keve kuritcafa rebava rodon zo skuyud. Kuvime is raltadakoraca koe krexa tite kota olkoba zo kaatoeyed. Zidaf nok iste rebava tiyid dem sphynx wiltkiraf vundaf sulem is debanyese jaftolye is darkasaberopaf fum is piatoama is loramik aname bliraal. Lan aptaf fum va ewavak ontinaf vas 60 cm- dem krapol laites va wocol nedir. Koe direfa nakila dem mil aal, krapol va wocol fu estur. [7].

Dum koe kusk ke dopewa, baroya belcetasa bonta kene lenttaltef kril tigiyid. Koe tana, san-tanoya pithoi rumela ton baroy emacek koe sid zo deraykayad ; isen 60 ara ton emacek vas sana koe toleafa bonta. Tana baroya getaltefa krilafa bonta bal vegedura va ironokafe anambe ke widava fuxetolon zo gabeyer. Nendasa rebava kum rilafa jola tiyir koon blaganamafa.

Fuknaboxa

Dive rebavega moe geefa datca, kolanixo ke baroya fuknaboxa leve tawafa is raporafa bada vafa vas balemoye metre tigiyid. Bak 1938 dubiesik va taneafa betsava fenkuyud. Inafe nite tiyir vas lenttaltugeronon plor ontinaf vas toloye metre, tumantanafe gu baroya radimefa mawa lize rebava tiyid dem rontagentimafa ponyaska. Ticefa otsa tiyir ton zobesa galza. Deluca tiyir kan tanoya bada vafa vas 40 cm- kum raporkipi az toleafa bada kum taweda dem raporkimi.

Tanoy azekos dem kuritcaf sid moe datca, yoltkiraf gu divefo tumtaxo tir ke mil ugal dam tane naboxa. Emacek dem atcom kake bat azent va migafa gluyaxa va naboxa bazecker. Kabdue bat emacek dem balemoy mekosuteyen atcom, drimulama zo kosmayar. Lan abday kaatoeyen moe muxelk kosmayan koe Rusahinili, yunkeyen gu blikes ok wetas korik is tumtaf aal moe raporaf levek va mogimara zanudayar. Moe muxelk kabdue kolanixo ke dopewa, wetara ape forteyotafa zo moskuyud. Wetaxo ke Altıntepe tir antafo grupeno xo tikiso vas mogimara is awalkikafa atayera. Caxafa muka don tulon barnugekaf sporam bal caxafipta zo nuzanudayad aze koe naboxa zo aykayad. [8]

Evla ke toleafa naboxa tir logavefa kire va darefa kelda van tela taneafa riyur. Geronafo divlanixo van naboxa kal antafa rontagentimafa mawa dem toloy ponyaskaf emacek koe baroya rebava stayar. Veyada koe sid ke ponyaska va fiumta bazecked, i va fiumta sugdalasa vas aldoanteyara. Mana suxoma koe aryona caxamawa koe Urartu dere zo kosmayad. Aldoanteyara nutiyir unaykafa ksubera osk dene sanelia is sayakikeem inde banvieli trakutut voxosk dene badeem ke sanelia. [9] Dum taneafa naboxa, kolanixo ke toleafa gu raporafu tilmu elimon licekayanu is kabduon ara jola zo oblayar.

Koe bareafa naboxa, arte ronon konake metre, baroya fukmawa ton ematc tigiyid. Tela kadimefa toloya vas raporafi elji koegiskiyid. Koe zeria dem lentronefo kolanixo, gadelapa isteon tiyir, isen koe gadela rotuvafa iyekotafa anamba is yon okolaf kudjot is tanoy wast is konaki edaki is toloya iyekotafa limega. Tanbata limega tiyir dem gretcaks va wiltkiraf lorik az valevdadeon tanoy lopinaf wiltkiraf okol. Anamba tiyir dem simbakoraf kosuteks ke sare ke Argishti II. Koe elji ke toleafa fukmawa, ayikye al zo konaboxayar, tise lebafe rape orka icde gejik. Jontik moavaf ok dilgavaf tialt is azilaf prosil pokeon tiyid. Elji ke bareafa mawa tiyir dem xim ke ayikya diskisa va wafafe blucte is jontika moavafa roga is aka. Olkoba tiyir gutokirafa gu tanoya intafa azega isu starka, i muka zanudatana koe enekeugalafa tamava. [10]

Kolna ke Byzantion sare

Byzantion uja tigisa keldackuon ice kesi moe ronef kril, bak 2003 zo kosmayar. Cofuotafa rebava vafa vas tanoye metre al videweyed, ton rontagentimaf tazuk vas 19.6 × 11.3 m-. Kepaita ke bartamaxofa abala tiyir moe baroya briva koe kot emacek. Ivamuackufa vrepta vawale ronefa rebavega tiyir do konaka olkoba koe kot kril. Bitcaf sid ke tamaxo, tanaf koe kotrafa ronefa Anatola, al videwepeyer. Valey darkasaberopackaf fum, imwaf fum is sulemafa vola zo rowid. Rebava gan kristevaf tumtik zo yunkeyed, gu ksevafi raporki is empayana triva. Tanoya bada ke mialukugalafo awalkikxo vamoe vilayana uja tigiyir. [11] Bitcxa gu kepaita kum dzavenaf zielt is kotkrilafa rebava ton irma zo nendar.

Lentefa miala ke berma tiyir pakon besanafa gu amuda dem tanoya ivamuackufa vrepta wexayesa vas ronefa rebava. Stabrega zo tiolteyed. Roneon cofuotafa rebava ke Byzantion sare dive nendasa rebavega al zo nendoyed.

Zoltera

Koe Altıntepe, konak kosuteks ke Urartu dem Luvi rietastaa is jontik simbakoraf zo trasiyid. Tuke toloy kosuteks kan Luvi rietastaa keve iyekotxa koe fuknaboxa, gazugal ke Argishti II zo rotevlar.

Wulaf kudjot is iyekotafa muka ke Altıntepe tid ke lozolonaf kosmaks koe Urartu. Iyekotafa gadela meseitafa ontinafa vas 51 cm- is xakolafa vas 72 cm- male taneafa naboxa kosmayana bak 1938 va obrara sumpayar. Tir zikenafa gu balemoya jaftolyefa taka keve doma, moe barnugek dem jaftolyefa kriza. Tanoya milafa gadela koe naboxa ke milugale Midas gazik ke Frigia koe Gordion zo katrasiyir. [12] Ostik yon abday isu tcekak isu ziradey ke guto is spor dem iyekotaf barnugek koe bata naboxa bak 1938 zo kosmayad. Toleafa naboxa vas stogoyeks ke dilgavafa anamba dem rontagentimaf fum dogiskiyir.

Wulafa muka aname muxelk ke geronef trist ke berma kotote tiyid ke uskej, don tulon debanyes krapol is wocol keve aal. Ar trasiks male milo xo tiyid prosil is jontika atsa isu trotsa isu tcekotsa. Ksevapaf rebavaf lingeks ke berma va kiracka tadled.

Joxan debak ke Altıntepe is Karmir Blur is Değirmentepe poke Patnos va giva icde roga ke irubasik ke Urartu dafud. Tialt is moavafa is dilgavafa aka tid ke rogeem trasiyin koe ayikyafa ik ayiyefa naboxa koe Altıntepe. Valey Değirmentepe, Altıntepe va tel lozolonaf rebaks dem aka koe ronefa Anatola drager. Keon : roga kum zogaba ok rimay ok rigela ok isola ok eriba ok pistvewuk. [13]

Mali -VIII-eafa decemda AGJ isu -VII-eafa, pozla ke iyekotafa anamba ke Urartu koe konako xo zo trasiyid. Ant tanoy olkoy ke bat pozleem male Altıntepe lanon zo rotevlar kiren simbakoraf kosuteks bazed da digisik tiyir milsareik ke Argishti I. Wiltkiraf ayokolik vektas vas ayazveriik ke Anipemza zo rowid voxe va tra koe nuba me gid. [14]

Stragela

Icdefa neva

  • (en) Mehmet Işikli: The Results of Surveys in the Environs of the Urartian Fortress of Altıntepe in Erzincan, Eastern Anatolia. (Investigations of Public Settlement Areas and Observations on the Post-Urartian Period.) In: Paolo Matthiae, Frances Pinnock, Licia Romano (Hrsg.): Icaane. Proceedings of the 6th International Congress of the Archaeology of the Ancient Near East. Volume 2. Harrassowitz, Wiesbaden 2010, S. 265–277
  • (de) Cengiz Işik: Neue Beobachtungen zur Darstellung von Kultszenen auf urartäischen Rollstempelsiegeln. In: Jahrbuch des Deutschen Archäologischen Instituts. Band 101. De Gruyter, Berlin 1986, S. 1–22
  • (en) Thomas Alexander Sinclair: Eastern Turkey: An Architectural and Archaeological Survey. Vol. II. The Pindar Press, London 1989, S. 430–434

Divafo xo

Vuestexa

  1. Franz Steinherr: Die urartäischen Bronzen von Altintepe. (PDF; 4,0 MB) In: Anatolia III, 1958, S. 97–102
  2. Hans Henning von der Osten: Neue urartäische Bronzen aus Erzincan. In: VI. Internationaler Kongress für Archäologie, 1939, S. 225–229
  3. Mirjo Salvini: Geschichte und Kultur der Urartäer. Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, Darmstadt 1995, S. 14f
  4. Antonio Sagona, Paul Zimansky: Ancient Turkey. Routledge, London/New York 2009, S. 328
  5. Işikli, S. 270f
  6. Salvini, S. 136
  7. Astrid Nunn: Die Wandmalerei und der glasierte Wandschmuck im alten Orient. In: Handbuch der Orientalistik. 7. Abteilung. Der alte Orient. 2. Abschnitt, Lfg. 6. Brill, Leiden 1988, S. 137
  8. Işik, S. 13–16, Salvini, S. 188
  9. Veli Sevin: A rock-cut columbarium from Van Kale and the Urartian cremation rite. In: Anadolu Araştırmaları. Istanbul 1982, S. 159–165
  10. Sinclair, S. 431–433
  11. Sedme lizukafa givasa zanela
  12. Sagona/Zimansky, S. 360
  13. Tahsin Özgüç: Jewellery, Gold Votive Plaques and a Silver Belt from Altıntepe. In: Anatolian Studies, Vol. 33, (Special Number in Honour of the Seventy-Fifth Birthday of Dr. Richard Barnett) 1983, S. 33–37, S. 35
  14. R. W. Hamilton: The Decorated Bronze Strip from Gushchi. In: Anatolian Studies, Vol. 15, 1965, S. 41–51, hier S. 49
Altıntepe
Rawaks ke dopewa, Altıntepe
DEBALA
Debala Üzümlü, vema ke Erzincan
Turka   Flag of Turkey.svg
Maneka OOjs UI icon mapPin-progressive.svg 39° 41′ 47" L-, 39° 38′ 48" R-
KIRA
Ord Urartu ralma
Welma - km²
IZVA
Zabdura ≈ -710-680 AGJ
Jovlera ?
Ayafe sare Urartu, Azilugal
P Parthenon 2.svg  Tuveli icde Izvopa  P Parthenon 2.svg
Tigixo ke Altıntepe debak
Urartu extension.svg Urartu Chariot D.jpg Urartu : savsugalafo gazaxo ke Pokefa Lenteka  Van Fortress From Northwest.JPG
Gazik

ArameLutipriSarduri IIshpuiniMenuaArgishti ISarduri IIRusa IArgishti IIRusa IISarduri IIISarduri IVErimenaRusa IIIRusa IV

Debak

AltıntepeArgishtikhiniliArzashkunAyanisBastamErebuniRusahiniliSardurihiniliTeishebaniTushpa

Lorik

ArubaniHaldiHubaShiviniTeishebaTushpuea

Araya

UrartuavaAlkaYamba